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Age of Earth

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I was wondering if there is a thread on this subject, or if there is some new information out or old haha. I have seen some scientific explanations for the discrepency's in the u.b and radiometric dates of the earth, I was wondering what information everyone else has.

 

One of the interesting things I heard was about how the master physical controllers increased the radioactivity early in the planets life to increase the speed of evolution, and then settled it down as life appeared and that this increase in radioactivity could account for the discrepency's of radiometric datings especially in regards to older dates.

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I would be interested in locating "master physical controllers increased the radioactivity". I did find this:

 

The internal heat of the earth continued to be augmented by the deeper and deeper burial of the radioactive or heavier elements brought in from space by the meteors. The study of these radioactive elements will reveal that Urantia is more than one billion years old on its surface. The radium clock is your most reliable timepiece for making scientific estimates of the age of the planet, but all such estimates are too short because the radioactive materials open to your scrutiny are all derived from the earth's surface and hence represent Urantia's comparatively recent acquirements of these elements. 659-2

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I would be interested in locating "master physical controllers increased the radioactivity". I did find this:

 

The internal heat of the earth continued to be augmented by the deeper and deeper burial of the radioactive or heavier elements brought in from space by the meteors. The study of these radioactive elements will reveal that Urantia is more than one billion years old on its surface. The radium clock is your most reliable timepiece for making scientific estimates of the age of the planet, but all such estimates are too short because the radioactive materials open to your scrutiny are all derived from the earth's surface and hence represent Urantia's comparatively recent acquirements of these elements. 659-2

 

The notion that the Master Physical Controllers increased the rate of radioactive decay is, to my knowledge, Chris Halvorson's idea. He supports it by this passage:

 

42:4.10 Throughout all of this never-ending metamorphosis of energy and matter we must reckon with the influence of gravity pressure and with the antigravity behavior of the ultimatonic energies under certain conditions of temperature, velocity, and revolution. Temperature, energy currents, distance, and the presence of the living force organizers and the power directors also
have a bearing on
all transmutation phenomena of energy and matter.

 

In my opinion, this is a very creative interpretation of the text.

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Todd,

 

No doubt he finagles the following quote in with the one you mention to equip the Master Physical Controllers with the fine control necessary to raise and lower the radioactive output of our planet's core by directionizing and/or amplifying the Satanaia Power Center's output.

P.456 - §4 One Supreme Power Center of the sixth order is stationed at the exact gravity focus of each local system. In the system of Satania the assigned power center occupies a dark island of space located at the astronomic center of the system. Many of these dark islands are vast dynamos which mobilize and directionize certain space-energies, and these natural circumstances are effectively utilized by the Satania Power Center, whose living mass functions as a liaison with the higher centers, directing the streams of more materialized power to the Master Physical Controllers on the evolutionary planets of space.

 

I agree it is a stretch. The language used by the Revelators almost seems, at times, to be inviting intellectual excitement to over ride discretion and make that inductive leap off the edge into speculation. A passage can be read many ways and it is often difficult to parse beyond what they actually say.

 

In paper 65, section eight, a Life Carrier states:

P.739 - §6 If spending so much time in effecting the evolutionary changes of life development occasions perplexity, I would say that we cannot time the life processes to unfold any faster than the physical metamorphoses of a planet will permit. We must wait upon the natural, physical development of a planet; we have absolutely no control over geologic evolution. If the physical conditions would allow, we could arrange for the completed evolution of life in considerably less than one million years. But we are all under the jurisdiction of the Supreme Rulers of Paradise, and time is nonexistent on Paradise.[/color

 

This quote from a Life Carrier is illustrative of the fact that they can accelerate biologic evolution so, by inference, must the Master Physical Controllers have the same ability in their realm of geologic evolution

 

I have to say that it just may be possible, in the early times of planetary accretion, for such adjustments in energy transformation to be made. Does the book state so?-I can't nail it down but I'll "buy in" to this idea as a working hypothesis until something better comes along...

 

 

Bill Martin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(more on Controllers)

Of all the Master Physical Controllers assigned to the inhabited worlds, the mechanical controllers are by far the most powerful. Possessing the living endowment of antigravity in excess of all other beings, each controller has a gravity resistance equaled only by enormous spheres revolving at tremendous velocity. Ten of these controllers are now stationed on Urantia, and one of their most important planetary activities is to facilitate the departure of seraphic transports. In so functioning, all ten of the mechanical controllers act in unison while a battery of one thousand energy transmitters provides the initial momentum for the seraphic departure.

P.326 - §2 The mechanical controllers are competent to directionize the flow of energy and to facilitate its concentration into the specialized currents or circuits. These mighty beings have much to do with the segregation, directionization, and intensification of the physical energies and with the equalization of the pressures of the interplanetary circuits. They are expert in the manipulation of twenty-one of the thirty physical energies of space, constituting the power charge of a superuniverse. They are also able to accomplish much towards the management and control of six of the nine more subtle forms of physical energy. By placing these controllers in proper technical relationship to each other and to certain of the power centers, the associate power directors are enabled to effect unbelievable changes in power adjustment and energy control.

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Guest As-Above-So-Below

We make the assumption that the history of the Earth’s creation is what the learned scientists tell us but, I could never understand why they insist that the Earth’s core is solid and or molten. Using reasonable logic you would assume that as a globe is formed from all that hot stuff it would eventually form a crust which would be cooled and heated over time and pressure but as a sphere started to form and spin centrifugal force would start to have some effect on this mass of stuff. If it started off as a rock, then it might stay a rock and gravity and asteroids etc., etc., would form as expected but what of the atmosphere, and all the water? It would be more likely that the Earth has a hollow core and that its internal centrifugal mass and compressing external gravity would cause a sifting crust that causes friction ergo lava, volcano’s, and earth quacks. Not to mention that our moon is also oversized in comparison to the diameter of the Earth.

 

This brings to mind the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon. NASA calculated the Moon’s gravity based on their calculations of Earth’s gravity calculations but one of the scientists there questioned their calculations and forewarned them that they were wrong. Still, all the computers were programmed with those misleading calculations. Well as I and many others saw on television that all was not just right. The Lunar module overshot the landing sight and the astronauts had to take manual control of the landing because the computer could not calculate all the changes. Nevertheless, they landed with ten seconds of fuel left. Not to mention that the astronauts were expected to be able to jump around with large bounds because the Moons gravity was expected to be one sixth of the Earth’s gravity. Regardless of the 250 pound suits and the weight of the astronauts, they were still only able to get around in short hops. So, someone was mistaken in their calculations regarding the gravity of the Moon or was it the Earth?

 

If the calculations of gravity can be questioned, so can all other physical evidence be questioned? Based on geologic evidence gathered throughout the world we can assume that there may have been other evolutionary processes that could have occurred throughout what we call time.

 

I have read many of Zecharia Sitchin’s books based on his translations of many Sumerian texts and found them very interesting. I have added below a few pages of his book “Genesis Revisited” which describes another possibility which does seem to make sense.

 

 

Zecharia Sitchin – “GENESIS REVISITED” – Pages, 29-39

 

It all began, the Sumerian texts relate, when the Solar System was still young. The Sun (APSU in the Sumerian texts, meaning "One Who Exists from the Beginning"), its little companion MUM. MU ('' One Who Was Born,'' our Mercury) and farther away TI.AMAT ("Maiden of Life") were the first members of the Solar System; it gradually expanded by the "birth" of three planetary pairs, the planets we call Venus and Mars between Mummu and Tiamat, the giant pair Jupiter and Saturn (to use their modern names) beyond Tiamat, and Uranus and Neptune farther out (Fig. 8).

 

Into this original Solar System, still unstable soon after its formation (I estimated the time about four billion years ago), an Invader appeared. The Sumerians called it NIBIRU; the Babylonians renamed it Marduk in honor of their national god. It appeared from outer space, from "the Deep," in the words of the ancient text. But as it approached the outer planets of our Solar System, it began to be drawn into it. As expected, the first outer planet to attract Nibiru with its gravitational pull was Neptune—E.A ("He Whose House Is Water") in Sumerian. "He who begot him was Ea," the ancient text explained.

 

Nibiru/Marduk itself was a sight to behold; alluring, sparkling, lofty, lordly are some of the adjectives used to describe it. Sparks and flashes bolted from it to Neptune and Uranus as it passed near them. It might have arrived with its own satellites already orbiting it, or it might have acquired some as a result of the gravitational pull of the outer planets. The ancient text speaks of its "perfect members. . .difficult to perceive"—"four were his eyes, four were his ears."

 

As it passed near Ea/Neptune, Nibiru/Marduk's side began to bulge "as though he had a second head." Was it then that the bulge was torn away to become Neptune's moon Triton? One aspect that speaks strongly for this is the fact that Nibiru/Marduk entered the Solar System in a retrograde (clockwise) orbit, counter to that of the other planets (Fig. 9). Only this Sumerian detail, according to which the invading planet was moving counter to the orbital motion of all the other planets, can explain the retrograde motion of Triton, the highly elliptical orbits of other satellites and comets, and the other major events that we have yet to tackle.

 

More satellites were created as Nibiru/Marduk passed by Anu/Uranus. Describing this passing of Uranus, the text states that "Anu brought forth and begot the four winds"—as clear a reference as one could hope for to the four major moons of Uranus that were formed, we now know, only during the collision that tilted Uranus. At the same time we learn from a later passage in the ancient text that Nibiru/Marduk himself gained three satellites as a result of this encounter.

 

Although the Sumerian texts describe how, after its eventual capture into solar orbit, Nibiru/Marduk revisited the outer planets and eventually shaped them into the system as we know it today, the very first encounter already explains the various puzzles that modern astronomy faced or still faces regarding Neptune, Uranus, their moons, and their rings.

 

Past Neptune and Uranus, Nibiru/Marduk was drawn even more into the midst of the planetary system as it reached the immense gravitational pulls of Saturn (AN.SHAR, "Foremost of the Heavens") and Jupiter (KI.SHAR, "Foremost of the Firm Lands"). As Nibiru/Marduk "approached and stood as though in combat" near Anshar/Saturn, the two planets "kissed their lips." It was then that the "destiny," the orbital path, of Nibiru/Marduk was changed forever. It was also then that the chief satellite of Saturn, GA.GA (the eventual Pluto), was pulled away in the direction of Mars and Venus—a direction possible only by the retrograde force of Nibiru/Marduk. Making a vast elliptical orbit, Gaga eventually returned to the outermost reaches of the Solar System. There it "addressed" Neptune and Uranus as it passed their orbits on the swing back. It was the beginning of the process by which Gaga was to become our Pluto, with its inclined and peculiar orbit that sometimes takes it between Neptune and Uranus.

 

The new "destiny," or orbital path, of Nibiru/Marduk was now irrevocably set toward the olden planet Tiamat. At that time, relatively early in the formation of the Solar System, it was marked by instability, especially (we learn from the text) in the region of Tiamat. While other planets nearby were still wobbling in their orbits, Tiamat was pulled in many directions by the two giants beyond her and the two smaller planets between her and the Sun. One result was the tearing off her, or the gathering around her, of a "host" of satellites "furious with rage," in the poetic language of the text (named by scholars the Epic of Creation). These satellites, "roaring monsters," were "clothed with terror" and "crowned with halos," swirling furiously about and orbiting as though they were "celestial gods"—planets.

 

Most dangerous to the stability or safety of the other planets was Tiamat's "leader of the host," a large satellite that grew to almost planetary size and was about to attain its independent "destiny"—its own orbit around the Sun. Tiamat "cast a spell for him, to sit among the celestial gods she exalted him." It was called in Sumerian KIN.GU—"Great Emissary."

 

Now the text raised the curtain on the unfolding drama; I have recounted it, step by step, in The 12th Planet. As in a Greek tragedy, the ensuing "celestial battle" was unavoidable as gravitational and magnetic forces came inexorably into play, leading to the collision between the oncoming Nibiru/Marduk with its seven satellites ("winds" in the ancient text) and Tiamat and its "host" of eleven satellites headed by Kingu.

 

Although they were headed on a collision course, Tiamat orbiting counterclockwise and Nibiru/Marduk clockwise, the two planets did not collide—a fact of cardinal astronomical importance. It was the satellites, or "winds," (literal Sumerian meaning: "Those that are by the side") of Nibiru/Marduk that smashed into Tiatnat and collided with her satellites.

 

In the first such encounter (Fig. 10), the first phase of the Celestial Battle,

 

The four winds he stationed that nothing of her could escape:

The South Wind, the North Wind, the East Wind, the West Wind.

Close to his side he held the net, the gift of his grandfather Anu who brought forth the Evil Wind,

the Whirlwind and the Hurricane. . . .

He sent forth the winds which he had created, the seven of them; to trouble Tiamat within they rose up behind him.

 

These "winds," or satellites, of Nibiru/Marduk, "the seven of them," were the principal "weapons" with which Tiamat was attacked in the first phase of the Celestial Battle (Fig. 10). But the invading planet had other "weapons" too:

 

In front of him he set the lightning, with a blazing flame he filled his body;

He then made a net to enfold Tiamat therein. . . .

A fearsome halo his head was turbaned.

He was wrapped with awesome terror as with a cloak.

 

As the two planets and their hosts of satellites came close enough for Nibiru/Marduk to "scan the inside of Tiamat" and ''perceive the scheme of Kingu,'' Nibiru/ Marduk attacked Tiamat with his "net" (magnetic field?) to "enfold her," shooting at the old planet immense bolts of electricity ("divine lightnings"). Tiamat "was filled with brilliance"—slowing down, heating up, "becoming distended." Wide gaps opened in its crust, perhaps emitting steam and volcanic matter. Into one widening fissure Nibiru/Marduk thrust one of its main satellites, the one called "Evil Wind." It tore Tiamat's "belly, cut through her insides, splitting her heart."

 

Besides splitting up Tiamat and "extinguishing her life," the first encounter sealed the fate of the moonlets orbiting her—all except the planetlike Kingu. Caught in the "net"—the magnetic and gravitational pull—of Nibiru/Marduk, "shattered, broken up," the members of the "band of Tiamat" were thrown off their previous course and forced into new orbital paths in the opposite direction: "Trembling with fear, they turned their backs about."

 

Thus were the comets created—thus, we learn from a 6,000-year-old text, did the comets obtain their greatly elliptical and retrograde orbits. As to Kingu, Tiamat's principal satellite, the text informs us that in that first phase of the celestial collision Kingu was just deprived of its almost-independent orbit. Nibiru/Marduk took away from him his "destiny." Nibiru/Marduk made Kingu into a DUG.GA.E, "a mass of life less clay," devoid of atmosphere, waters and radioactive matter and shrunken in size; and "with fetters bound him," to remain in orbit around the battered Tiamal.

 

Having vanquished Tiamat, Nibiru/Marduk sailed on on his new "destiny." The Sumerian text leaves no doubt that the erstwhile invader orbited the Sun:

 

He crossed the heavens and surveyed the regions, and Apsu's quarter he measured;

The Lord the dimensions of the Apsu measured.

 

Having circled the Sun (Apsu), Nibiru/Marduk continued into distant space. But now, caught forever in solar orbit, it had to turn back. On his return round, Ea/Neptune was there to greet him and Anshar/Saturn hailed his victory. Then his new orbital path returned him to the scene of the Celestial Battle, "turned back to Tiamat whom he had bound."

 

The Lord paused to view her lifeless body.

To divide the monster he then artfully planned.

Then, as a mussel, he split her into two parts.

 

With this act the creation of "the heaven" reached its final stage, and the creation of Earth and its Moon began. First the new impacts broke Tiamat into two halves. The upper part, her "skull," was struck by the Nibiru/Marduk satellite called North Wind; the blow carried it, and with it Kingu, "to places that have been unknown"—to a brand-new orbit where there had not been a planet before. The Earth and our Moon were created (Fig. 11)!

 

The other half of Tiamat was smashed by the impacts into bits and pieces. This lower half, her "tail," was "hammered together" to become a "bracelet" in the heavens:

 

Locking the pieces together, as watchmen he stationed them. . . .

He bent Tiamat's tail to form the Great Band as a bracelet.

 

Thus was "the Great Band," the Asteroid Belt, created. Having disposed of Tiamat and Kingu, Nibiru/Marduk once again "crossed the heavens and surveyed the regions." This time his attention was focused on the "Dwelling of Ea" (Neptune), giving that planet and its twinlike Uranus their final makeup. Nibiru/Marduk also, according to the ancient text, provided Gaga/Pluto with its final "destiny," assigning to it "a hidden place"—a hitherto unknown part of the heavens. It was farther out than Neptune's location; it was, we are told, "in the Deep"—far out in space. In line with its new position as the outermost planet, it was granted a new name: US.MI—"He Who Shows the Way," the first planet encountered coming into the Solar System—that is, from outer space toward the Sun.

 

Thus was Pluto created and put into the orbit it now holds.

 

Having thus "constructed the stations" for the planets, Nibiru/Marduk made two "abodes" for itself. One was in the

"Firmament," as the asteroid belt was also called in the ancient texts; the other far out "in the Deep" was called the "Great/Distant Abode," alias E.SHARRA ("Abode/Home of the Ruler/Prince"). Modern astronomers call these two planetary positions the perigee (the orbital point nearest the Sun) and the apogee (the farthest one) (Fig. 12). It is an orbit, as concluded from the evidence amassed in The 12th Planet, that takes 3,600 Earth-years to complete.

 

Thus did the Invader that came from outer space become the twelfth member of the Solar System, a system made up of the Sun in the center, with its longtime companion Mercury; the three olden pairs (Venus and Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus and Neptune); the Earth and the Moon, the remains of the great Tiamat, though in a new position; the newly independent Pluto; and the planet that put it all into final shape, Nibiru/Marduk (Fig. 13).

 

Modern astronomy and recent discoveries uphold and corroborate this millennia-old tale.

 

 

WHEN EARTH HAD NOT BEEN FORMED

 

In 1766 J. D. Titius proposed and in 1772 Johann Elert Bode popularized what became known as "Bode's law," which showed that planetary distances follow, more or less, the progression 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc., if the formula is manipulated by multiplying by 3, adding 4, and dividing by 10. Using as a measure the astronomical unit (AU), which is the distance of Earth from the Sun, the formula indicates that there should be a planet between Mars and Jupiter (the asteroids are found there) and a planet beyond Saturn (Uranus was discovered). The formula shows tolerable deviations up until one reaches Uranus but gets out of whack from Neptune on.

 

Planet ------- Distance (AU) ---- Bode's Law, Distance - Deviation

________________________________________________________

 

Mercury ................ 0.387 .............. 0.400 ................ 3.4%

Venus ................... 0.723 .............. 0.700 ................ 3.2%

Earth .................... 1.000 .............. 1.000

Mars ..................... 1.524 .............. 1.600 ................ 5.0%

Asteroids .............. 2.794 ............... 2.800

Jupiter .................. 5.203 ............... 5.200

Saturn .................. 9.539 .............. 10.000 .............. 4.8%

Uranus ................ 19.182 .............. 19.600 .............. 2.1%

Neptune .............. 30.058 .............. 38.800 .............. 36.3%

Pluto ................... 39.400 .............. 77.200 ............. 95.9%

 

Bode's law, which was arrived at empirically, thus uses Earth as its arithmetic starting point. But according to the Sumerian cosmogony, at the beginning there was Tiamat between Mars and Jupiter, whereas Earth had not yet formed.

 

Dr. Amnon Sitchin has pointed out that if Bode's law is stripped of its arithmetical devices and only the geometric progression is retained, the formula works just as well if Earth is omitted—thus confirming Sumerian cosmogony:

 

 

Planet --------- Distance from Sun (miles) ------- Ratio of Increase

_______________________________________________________

 

Mercury .................. 36,250,000 —

Venus ..................... 67,200,000 ..................... 1.85

Mars ..................... 141,700,000 ..................... 2.10

Asteroids (Ti.Amat). 260,400,000 ..................... 1.84

Jupiter .................. 484,000,000 ..................... 1.86

Saturn .................. 887,100,000 ..................... 1.83

Uranus ............... 1.783,900,000 .................... 2.01

 

=========================================================================

 

 

I would insert the Figures, but I'm not sure how to perform this function. If someone would add this information to the forum how too, area it would be helpfull.

Edited by As-Above-So-Below

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“Age of Earth” (UAI formum):

boomshuka wrote Oct 29 2011, 05:05 AM:

“I was wondering if there is a thread on this subject, or if there is some new information out or old haha. I have seen some scientific explanations for the discrepancy’s in the u.b and radiometric dates of the earth, I was wondering what information everyone else has.”

 

Which is the discrepancy in the u.b. that you have seen?

 

On this forum you might find the following mail by me:

Posted on: Mar 5 2010, 11:11 AM

http://www.urantia-uai.org/forums/index.ph...ost&p=11468

source:

 

The Age of the Earth

Author: G. Brent Dalrymple

Date: 1991

Publisher: Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA

ISBN: 0804723311

http://www.talkorigins.org/faqs/faq-age-of-earth.html

 

...unless there has been some undiscovered change in the fundamental nature of matter and energy since the universe formed, the presumption of constancy for radioactive decay is, for all practical purposes, eminently reasonable [p.87].

 

Lead Isotopes:

Chapter seven describes a model using lead isotopes which most geologists accept as giving the most accurate value for the age of the Earth. The method makes use of the fact that uranium-235 and uranium-238 decay independently into two different isotopes of lead. It depends on assumptions about the "primordial" isotopic composition of lead and about the development of certain lead ores. Most of the chapter is devoted to explaining evidence from meteorites and terrestrial lead sources which has produced consistent results. It is these results which yield the "best" age of 4.52-4.56 Ga.

 

And the following values are calculated by me (in 2005 or earlier) from the data given by Dalrymple:

 

Type_ Number Dated_ Method_ Age (billions of years)

-------------------------------- ---------- ----------- -----------------

Chondrites_13____________ Sm-Nd_ 4.21 +/- 0.76

Carbonaceous chondrites_ 4_ Rb-Sr_ 4.37 +/- 0.34

Chondrites (undist. H) _38___ Rb-Sr_ 4.50 +/- 0.02

Chondrites (all)_50_________ Rb-Sr_ 4.43 +/- 0.04

H Chondrites (undist.) 17____ Rb-Sr_ 4.52 +/- 0.04

H Chondrites_15__________ Rb -Sr_ 4.59 +/- 0.06

L Chondrites (rel. und.)6____ Rb-Sr_ 4.44 +/- 0.12

L Chondrites_5___________ Rb-Sr_ 4.38 +/- 0.12

LL Chondrites (undist.)13___ Rb-Sr_ 4.49 +/- 0.02

LL Chondrites_10_________ Rb-Sr_ 4.46 +/- 0.06

E Chondrites (undist.) 8____ Rb-Sr_ 4.51 +/- 0.04

E Chondrites_8___________ Rb-Sr_ 4.44 +/- 0.13

Eucrites (polymict)_23______ Rb-Sr_ 4.53 +/- 0.19

Eucrites_11______________ Rb-Sr_ 4.44 +/- 0.30

Eucrites_13______________ Lu-Hf_ 4.57 +/- 0.19

Diogenites_5_____________ Rb-Sr_ 4.45 +/- 0.18

Iron (+ St. Severin)_8______ Re-Os_ 4.57 +/- 0.21

 

We might however calculate mean ages from the sample, just to see how large the spread is, resulting from different samples. I made this, and here are the results; I have used weighted averages and weighted standard deviations of the sample, in all cases:

 

number = 247___mean age = 4.47 +/- 0.08 (all meteorites)

 

number = 226___mean age = 4.48 +/- 0.05 (sample with largest and smallest age removed)

 

number = 151___mean age = 4.49 +/- 0.05 (sample with smallest standard deviations)

 

=

 

As there is excellent agreement in the value for the age of the Earth, in science and the Urantia Papers, so what is the problem?

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Hey thanks HSTa I appreciate all that information!

 

I have come across alot of information which suggests that the older date's in the Urantia Book compared to current estimations of older dates by science is completly out of sync. You are suggesting that this element is a better indicator of date's and therefor equals the date's given in the urantia book?

Edited by boomshuka
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But TUB also states that the surface of the Earth is only about 1 billion years old, whereas science claims it is more than 4 billion years old. And TUB states that life started on Earth only 550 million years ago, whereas the geological column indicates it started more than 3 billion years ago.

 

When all such discrepant dates in TUB are analysed, it seems that radioactive decay rates fluctuate in time with a 2 billion year cycle.. And radiometric estimate ages (well) over 1 billion years, are on average ~4 time higher than the true age of the material samples.

 

So, if the Earth’s surface is ~1.1 billion years old (as TUB suggests), it would radiometrically look 4.5 billion years old (as science claims). And TUB’s statement that the (true) age of the Earth is 4.5 billion years may indicate that the radiometric age of the core of the Earth is 4 × 4.5 = 18 billion years old..

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