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EllenRG

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    U.S. Pacific Northwest, Urantia, Nebadon, Orvonton,
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    BE Fatherly loving to each and all ! Getting our FACTS straight; Planetary wide integrity; straight talking-listening; compassion; altruism; creative solution imagination; adherence to spirit of law of life; identifying/eliminating laws made by selfish interests; identifying evil masquerading as good; avoiding perpetuation of error; supporting enlightened pursuits: momentarily in perpetuity AMEN
  1. Thanks, Rick!! ..think i'll start from least, up --ell! : Urantia Book Study..............25 toQuestions about the Urantia Papers..............................................792,298
  2. Hi Bonita, no I didn't mean it that way, although respect comes to mind regarding God's Natural Laws. We know to be successful we can't leap over incremental steps required to grow from one stage to another, like presently in the Middle East where we're finding out the hard way that "democracy" has to be grown and cannot be imposed. Our history is strewn with failed experiments from jumping over and around important steps in whole cultural shifts. Back when -a million years ago- Andon and Fanta as the first Human beings with God's will alive in their hearts, our planet achieved the status of Inhabited and simultaneously the Life Carriers could no longer manipulate the physical evolution of our planet even while I'm sure they monitor us continuously. Today, our millions of years of careful cultivation of evolutionary progress is being jeapordized by rampant disregard for our delicate heritage, squandered on nearly all levels, through clear denial of the treasure we benefit from of Urantia as a home, and our genetic fabric as the basis of survival as a species. Some choose to dwell on our spiritual aspect at the expense of acknowledging our Human responsibility for safeguarding our physical basis of life, itself. Just because we know that no matter what happens, no matter what horrible things may kill us physically we are assured of salvation, that does not remove our legitimate Universe Citizen need to manage our physical world responsibly, intelligently, for a decent future for all who come after. Adam and Eves normally guide a planet's physical development including through the industrial era. We need to be extra faithful that God-Indwelt persons FIND our way through this sensitive explosion of manipulation and blatantly insane destruction of our planet's genetic fabric - some wisely, very much not wise and extremely dangerous to survival. Ignorance is our enemy. Greed motivates many wrongs, but apathy will doom survival, too. I believe we cannot afford to "rest on our laurels" and must be vigilant over practical matters involving caretaking of our planet on behalf of everyone now, and to come. For example... at this time there is an explosion of genetically defective babies in the U.S. due to unwise use of prescription drugs like paxil during the beginning of pregnancy. We are currently Guinea Pigs for industries that need to be regulated and subjected to intense scrutiny for the damage they cause. Our human institutions need informed spiritually motivated personnel to do our Indwelt best aided by our Master Creator's TRUTH which transcends even Adam and Eve's practical guidance on normal planets not in isolation. (We are faced with educational systems who deny science) It IS A TALL ORDER but with knowing we are among potentially 10,000,000 planets in this Local Universe, we can grasp the enormity of how much God loves us and wants us to succeed.
  3. I've been reading so many posts on this topic, it is hard to know where to start! First, if i get it right... we humans, "Sons of God" are Father Indwelt, and nearly all the other beings of our Universe are children of the Holy Mother Spirit. They ( our Universe compatriots) are similarly imperfect as we are. We are all learning together, ya? "They" are not "running the show" so much as we are "as we will" ...& too bad we don't get that, really. I think we need to truly appreciate the consequence of the revelation that we are those we are looking for, responsible for Urantia's physical side, too ..for being cognizant of our whereabouts and the ramifications of violating "Gods laws of nature" . It is Very Wonderful to know our Father and Jesus' Truth are potential in every single person on this planet. There are more persons alive today than lived in all the time before now. Persistent ignorance and repeated failure is NOT our destiny, necessarily. Think..10,000,000 inhabited planets destined to share in Jesus Michael's truth he learns here, too.
  4. Hi Rick,( hi All )... That quote and your observation get to the point well... it is not possible to "love" yourself because really love is intrinsically giving from God through you/us to/for others... (also we really can't "love" a thing, we can want it or like it, appreciate it) 12 step programs, which I perceive as complementing The URANTIA Book project, specify -higher power- AND claim healing comes from helping another. "Practice makes perfect". Helping, caring for a person is how we learn what love IS i think. --ell Don Henley
  5. May 30, 2011 ~ This is a test. Here my cursor is visible and I can type as normally as before, but (for years now) when trying to participate in other discussions I cannot see my cursor and I cannot function in the compose box. I don't know what is wrong or how to fix it. --EllenRG "Sound arguments An argument is sound if and only if The argument is valid. All of its premises are true." " http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soundness "Soundness In mathematical logic, a logical system has the soundness property if and only if its inference rules prove only formulas that are valid with respect to its semantics. "In most cases, this comes down to its rules having the property of preserving truth, but this is not the case in general. "Sound arguments An argument is sound if and only if The argument is valid. All of its premises are true. For instance, All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. "The preceding argument is valid (because the conclusion is true based on the premises, that is, that the conclusion follows the premises) and since the premises are in fact true, the argument is sound. "The following argument is valid but not sound: All animals can fly. Pigs are animals. Therefore, pigs can fly. Since the first premise is actually false, the argument, though valid, is not sound. "Soundness of logical systems Soundness is among the most fundamental properties in mathematical logic. A soundness property provides the initial reason for counting a logical system as desirable. The completeness property means that every validity (truth) is provable. Together they imply that all and only validities are provable. Most proofs of soundness are trivial.[citation needed] For example, in an axiomatic system, proof of soundness amounts to verifying the validity of the axioms and that the rules of inference preserve validity (or the weaker property, truth). Most axiomatic systems have only the rule of modus ponens (and sometimes substitution),[citation needed] so it requires only verifying the validity of the axioms and one rule of inference. "Soundness properties come in two main varieties: weak and strong soundness, of which the former is a special case of the latter. "Weak soundness Weak soundness of a deductive system is the property that any sentence that is provable in that deductive system is also true on all interpretations or models of the semantic theory for the language upon which that theory is based. In symbols, where S is the deductive system, L the language together with its semantic theory, and P a sentence of L: ?S P, then also ?L P. In other words, a system is weakly sound if each of its theorems (i.e. formulas provable from the empty set) is valid in every structure of the language. "Strong soundness Strong soundness of a deductive system is the property that any sentence P of the language upon which the deductive system is based that is derivable from a set ? of sentences of that language is also a logical consequence of that set ?, in the sense that any model that makes all members of ? true will also make P true. In symbols where ? is a set of sentences of L: if ? ?S P, then also ? ?L P. "Notice that in the statement of strong soundness, when ? is empty, we have the statement of weak soundness. "Relation to completeness The converse of the soundness property is the semantic completeness property. A deductive system with a semantic theory is strongly complete if every sentence P that is a semantic consequence of a set of sentences Γ can be derived in the deduction system from that set. "In symbols: whenever Γ ⊨ P, then also Γ ⊢ P. Completeness of first-order logic was first explicitly established by Gödel, though some of the main results were contained in earlier work of Skolem. "Informally, a soundness theorem for a deductive system expresses that all provable sentences are true. "Completeness states that all true sentences are provable. Gödel's first incompleteness theorem shows that for languages sufficient for doing a certain amount of arithmetic, there can be no effective deductive system that is complete with respect to the intended interpretation of the symbolism of that language. "Thus, not all sound deductive systems are complete in this special sense of completeness, in which the class of models (up to isomorphism) is restricted to the intended one. The original completeness proof applies to all classical models, not some special proper subclass of intended ones.References Hinman, P. (2005). Fundamentals of Mathematical Logic. A K Peters. ISBN 1-568-81262-0.Irving Copi. Symbolic Logic, Vol. 5, Macmillian Publishing Co., 1979.Boolos, Burgess, Jeffrey. Computability and Logic, Vol. 4, Cambridge, 2002" ~ ~ ~ JULY 31, 2008 ~ ~ ~ May 30, 2011 ~ This is a test. Here my cursor is visible and I can type as normally as before, but (for years now) when trying to participate in other discussions I cannot see my cursor and I cannot function in the compose box. I don't know what is wrong or how to fix it. --EllenRG
  6. This idea.. ... I think is hard for persons who try hard to do as they have been told, taught, brought up to admire and stick with as principles of living. When I was little some teachings of our church seemed to be not sensible and now I know they weren't sensible or correct and I feel sorry for all the people who must continuously and constantly attempt to reconcile the incorrect teachings of their church or philosophy with true God in their heart showing them the way -- a way that is perhaps VERY different and -on-the-face-of-it- "wrong" according to their upbringing and practices. How do persons develop confidence in the their Adjuster's leading? i'm thinking: Practice! Practice loving! Practice loving and LISTENING to person's who's Adjusters are there, too. Honest and friendly feedback. Practice TRUTH without brutality. Here is an admonition ( thank you Meredith)
  7. Hi Rick, this line was difficult to "get" but here is an attempt to : RE: " ...Technically, he has no right to assert that he is either materialist or idealist, for in so doing he has assumed to forsake the attitude of a true scientist since any and all such assertions of attitude are the very essence of philosophy...." There is an objective scientific process to be "religiously" adhered to before any scientific fact is accepted as a fact. Assertion states position - a matter of philosophic opinion whereas a fact, like gravity, is not an opinion but an identified and thoroughly proved scientific reality. Also.. while "religion" is really a PERSONAL relationship with God, our discussion and sharing of our ideas, our collective agreement about ideas (and adoption of attitudes) is relegated to the realm of PHILOSOPHY, "technically" not religion. I find this intriguing because this concept is central to a person's decisions regarding "conflict of interest" --Ell
  8. Hi Rich.... I see and have found URANTIA students on Facebook, and am actually working to support "active/interaction" among local Ub students and community for URANTIA study groups. We're so busy locally we hardly have time to turn on the computer except to keep up on communication. Write me at ellen.gaynor@gmail.com if you want to find URANTIA students in your area. It may take TIME and you may need to GO a DISTANCE but it is very rewarding to "talk URANTIA' in person, as i suspect you already are very well aware of. --Ell
  9. Thanks, HSTa, for your help in studying how the insights in our URANTIA Book relate to our improving (but still limited) knowledge of our physical basis of life. The URANTIA Book clarifies that life could not evolve here without the protective layer of ozone which stops "dangerous and destructive".... "short wave lengths": (665.5) 58:2.2 The earth's atmosphere is all but opaque to much of the solar radiation at the extreme ultraviolet end of the spectrum. Most of these short wave lengths are absorbed by a layer of ozone which exists throughout a level about ten miles above the surface of the earth, and which extends spaceward for another ten miles. The ozone permeating this region, at conditions prevailing on the earth's surface, would make a layer only one tenth of an inch thick; nevertheless, this relatively small and apparently insignificant amount of ozone protects Urantia inhabitants from the excess of these dangerous and destructive ultraviolet radiations present in sunlight.This phrase, " this relatively small and apparently insignificant amount of ozone protects Urantia inhabitants from the excess of these dangerous and destructive ultraviolet radiations present in sunlight " indicates to me that dangerous and destructive ultraviolet radiations are harmful to life, to healthy evolution of DNA. Ionizing radiation is of different wavelengths: Alpha, Beta, and Gamma to name three. The shortest when assimilated in living systems, accumulated in specific parts of living systems and increasingly concentrated in living systems, cause very specific destruction and damage to DNA as the energy disbursal is a barrage for a long time on the molecular level within the living system. In humans who are at the top of the food chain (in itself a process of assimilation, accumulation and concentration) the brain, bone and reproductive organs assimilate, accumulate and concentrate ionizing radionuclides who bombard the DNA with "desttructive and dangerous" "short wave lengths" rendering the body or living system incapable of HEALTHY reproduction. I think our moral/ethical/physical challenge is of UNIVERSAL concern since our planet has the unusual and unique position of relying simply on our Father Indwelt, Truth led capacity to deal with these problems having not enjoyed the overcare of Adam and Eve who are the normal guides of humans through these gigantic scientific progressions. I believe part of our gift of The URANTIA Book has to do with assuring us that our scientific basis of life is VALID and also it is God's NATURAL LAW which cannot be violated without experiencing the consequences of error, evil ... possibly sin and iniquity which is death and in the physical world, non-existence. --EllenRG (666.1) 58:2.4 Your sun pours forth a veritable flood of death-dealing rays, and your pleasant life on Urantia is due to the "fortuitous" influence of more than two-score apparently accidental protective operations similar to the action of this unique ozone layer. FROM The URANTIA Book: 2. The Urantia Atmosphere (665.4) 58:2.1 The planetary atmosphere filters through to the earth about one two-billionth of the sun's total light emanation. If the light falling upon North America were paid for at the rate of two cents per kilowatt-hour, the annual light bill would be upward of 800 quadrillion dollars. Chicago's bill for sunshine would amount to considerably over 100 million dollars a day. And it should be remembered that you receive from the sun other forms of energy — light is not the only solar contribution reaching your atmosphere. Vast solar energies pour in upon Urantia embracing wave lengths ranging both above and below the recognition range of human vision. * (665.5) 58:2.2 The earth's atmosphere is all but opaque to much of the solar radiation at the extreme ultraviolet end of the spectrum. Most of these short wave lengths are absorbed by a layer of ozone which exists throughout a level about ten miles above the surface of the earth, and which extends spaceward for another ten miles. The ozone permeating this region, at conditions prevailing on the earth's surface, would make a layer only one tenth of an inch thick; nevertheless, this relatively small and apparently insignificant amount of ozone protects Urantia inhabitants from the excess of these dangerous and destructive ultraviolet radiations present in sunlight. But were this ozone layer just a trifle thicker, you would be deprived of the highly important and health-giving ultraviolet rays which now reach the earth's surface, and which are ancestral to one of the most essential of your vitamins. (665.6) 58:2.3 And yet some of the less imaginative of your mortal mechanists insist on viewing material creation and human evolution as an accident. The Urantia midwayers have assembled over fifty thousand facts of physics and chemistry which they deem to be incompatible with the laws of accidental chance, and which they contend unmistakably demonstrate the presence of intelligent purpose in the material creation. And all of this takes no account of their catalogue of more than one hundred thousand findings outside the domain of physics and chemistry which they maintain prove the presence of mind in the planning, creation, and maintenance of the material cosmos. (666.1) 58:2.4 Your sun pours forth a veritable flood of death-dealing rays, and your pleasant life on Urantia is due to the "fortuitous" influence of more than two-score apparently accidental protective operations similar to the action of this unique ozone layer. (666.2) 58:2.5 Were it not for the "blanketing" effect of the atmosphere at night, heat would be lost by radiation so rapidly that life would be impossible of maintenance except by artificial provision. (666.3) 58:2.6 The lower five or six miles of the earth's atmosphere is the troposphere; this is the region of winds and air currents which provide weather phenomena. Above this region is the inner ionosphere and next above is the stratosphere. Ascending from the surface of the earth, the temperature steadily falls for six or eight miles, at which height it registers around 70 degrees below zero F. This temperature range of from 65 to 70 degrees below zero F. is unchanged in the further ascent for forty miles; this realm of constant temperature is the stratosphere. At a height of forty-five or fifty miles, the temperature begins to rise, and this increase continues until, at the level of the auroral displays, a temperature of 1200° F. is attained, and it is this intense heat that ionizes the oxygen. But temperature in such a rarefied atmosphere is hardly comparable with heat reckoning at the surface of the earth. Bear in mind that one half of all your atmosphere is to be found in the first three miles. The height of the earth's atmosphere is indicated by the highest auroral streamers — about four hundred miles. (666.4) 58:2.7 Auroral phenomena are directly related to sunspots, those solar cyclones which whirl in opposite directions above and below the solar equator, even as do the terrestrial tropical hurricanes. Such atmospheric disturbances whirl in opposite directions when occurring above or below the equator. (666.5) 58:2.8 The power of sunspots to alter light frequencies shows that these solar storm centers function as enormous magnets. Such magnetic fields are able to hurl charged particles from the sunspot craters out through space to the earth's outer atmosphere, where their ionizing influence produces such spectacular auroral displays. Therefore do you have the greatest auroral phenomena when sunspots are at their height — or soon thereafter — at which time the spots are more generally equatorially situated. (666.6) 58:2.9 Even the compass needle is responsive to this solar influence since it turns slightly to the east as the sun rises and slightly to the west as the sun nears setting. This happens every day, but during the height of sunspot cycles this variation of the compass is twice as great. These diurnal wanderings of the compass are in response to the increased ionization of the upper atmosphere, which is produced by the sunlight. (666.7) 58:2.10 It is the presence of two different levels of electrified conducting regions in the superstratosphere that accounts for the long-distance transmission of your long- and short-wave radiobroadcasts. Your broadcasting is sometimes disturbed by the terrific storms which occasionally rage in the realms of these outer ionospheres.
  10. "....atomic riddle. When atoms perform radioactively, they emit far more energy than would be expected. This excess of radiation is derived from the breaking up of the mesotron "energy carrier," which thereby becomes a mere electron. The mesotronic disintegration is also accompanied by the emission of certain small uncharged particles."(479.3) 42:8.5 1st FROM The URANTIA Book: (479.1) 42:8.3 The charged protons and the uncharged neutrons of the nucleus of the atom are held together by the reciprocating function of the mesotron, a particle of matter 180 times as heavy as the electron. Without this arrangement the electric charge carried by the protons would be disruptive of the atomic nucleus. (479.2) 42:8.4 As atoms are constituted, neither electric nor gravitational forces could hold the nucleus together. The integrity of the nucleus is maintained by the reciprocal cohering function of the mesotron, which is able to hold charged and uncharged particles together because of superior force-mass power and by the further function of causing protons and neutrons constantly to change places. The mesotron causes the electric charge of the nuclear particles to be incessantly tossed back and forth between protons and neutrons. At one infinitesimal part of a second a given nuclear particle is a charged proton and the next an uncharged neutron. And these alternations of energy status are so unbelievably rapid that the electric charge is deprived of all opportunity to function as a disruptive influence. Thus does the mesotron function as an "energy-carrier" particle which mightily contributes to the nuclear stability of the atom. (479.3) 42:8.5 The presence and function of the mesotron also explains another atomic riddle. When atoms perform radioactively, they emit far more energy than would be expected. This excess of radiation is derived from the breaking up of the mesotron "energy carrier," which thereby becomes a mere electron. The mesotronic disintegration is also accompanied by the emission of certain small uncharged particles. (479.4) 42:8.6 The mesotron explains certain cohesive properties of the atomic nucleus, but it does not account for the cohesion of proton to proton nor for the adhesion of neutron to neutron. The paradoxical and powerful force of atomic cohesive integrity is a form of energy as yet undiscovered on Urantia. 2nd (also known as Ionizing) Radiation Basics - Ionising and Non Ionising Radiation Ionising radiation has more energy than non ionising radiation; enough to cause chemical changes by breaking chemical bonds. What is the electromagnetic spectrum? The electromagnetic spectrum includes radio waves, microwaves, infrared rays, light rays, ultra violet rays, X-rays and gamma rays. All electomagnetic radiation is transmitted through empty space at 3.0 X 108 metres per second (300 thousand kilometres per second). The different forms of electromagnetic radiation are distinguished from each other by: their wavelength the amount of energy they transfer These properties also determine their ability to travel through objects, their heating effects and their effect on living tissue. What is the relationship between wavelength and frequency? Sometimes electromagnetic radiation is described using its frequency rather than its wavelength. These two characteristics are closely related. If we could watch a wave of electromagnetic radiation pass, the wavelength would be the distance between two adjacent wave crests, the frequency would be the number of wave peaks that passed in a given time. Since electromagnetic radiation travels at a constant speed in a constant environment, radiation with a longer wavelength would have fewer waves passing in a given time (lower frequency) and radiation with a shorter wavelength would have more waves passing in a given time (higher frequency). When wavelength increases, frequency decreases and visa versa. The hertz is the unit used to measure frequency. A measured frequency of one hertz(Hz) represents one wavelength per second or one cycle per second. The range of frequencies within the electomagnetic spectrum is great resulting in the common use of a series of units: one kilohertz(kHz) is one thousand hertz (1000 Hz) one megahertz(MHz) is one million hertz (1,000,000 Hz) one gigahertz(GHz) is one thousand million hertz (1,000,000,000 Hz) What is non ionising radiation? Non ionising radiation is found at the long wavelength end of the spectrum and may have enough energy to excite molecules and atoms causing then to vibrate faster. This is very obvious in a microwave oven where the radiation causes water molecules to vibrate faster creating heat. Non ionising radiation ranges from extremely low frequency radiation, shown on the far left through the radiofrequency, microwave, and visible portions of the spectrum into the ultraviolet range. Extremely low-frequency radiation has very long wavelengths (in the order of a thousand kilometres or more) and frequencies in the range of 100 hertz or less. Radiofrequencies have wavelengths of between 1 and 100 metres and frequencies in the range of 1 million to 100 million hertz. Microwaves that we use to heat food have wavelengths that are about 1 hundredth of a metre long and have frequencies of about 10 billion hertz. What is ionising radiation? Ionising radiation has more energy than non ionising radiation; enough to cause chemical changes by breaking chemical bonds. This effect can cause damage to living tissue. Shorter wavelength ultraviolet radiation begins to have enough energy to break chemical bonds. X-ray and gamma ray radiation, which are at the upper end of electromagnetic spectrum, have very high frequencies (in the range of 100 billion billion hertz) and very short wavelengths (1 million millionth of a metre). Radiation in this range has extremely high energy. It has enough energy to strip electrons from an atom or, in the case of very high-energy radiation, break up the nucleus of the atom. The process in which an electron is given enough energy to break away from an atom is called ionisation. This process results in the formation of two charged particles or ions: the molecule with a net positive charge, and the free electron with a negative charge. Each ionisation releases energy which is absorbed by material surrounding the ionized atom. Compared to other types of radiation that may be absorbed, ionising radiation deposits a large amount of energy into a small area. In fact, the energy from one ionisation is more than enough energy to disrupt the chemical bond between two carbon atoms. All ionising radiation is capable, directly or indirectly, of removing electrons from most molecules. There are three main kinds of ionising radiation: alpha particles, which include two protons and two neutrons; beta particles, which are essentially electrons; and gamma rays and x-rays, which are pure energy (photons). Alpha particles and beta particles are not part of the electromagnetic spectrum; they are energetic particles as opposed to pure energy bundles (photons).
  11. Here are some tools for this study of ionizing (ionising) radiation --EllenRG http://www.arpansa.gov.au/radiationprotect...s/glossary.cfm# Radiation Basics - Glossary of Terms A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z Absorbed dose Quantity of energy imparted by ionizing radiation to unit mass of matter such as tissue. Unit gray, symbol Gy. 1 Gy = 1 joule per kilogram. Activity Attribute of an amount of a radionuclide. Describes the rate at which transformations occur in it. Unit becquerel, symbol Bq. 1 Bq = 1 transformation per second. Alpha particle A particle consisting of two protons plus two neutrons. Emitted by a radionuclide. More detailed information is available on the alpha particle web page. Anthropogenic As an adjective - caused by humans. Anthropogenic radiation is radiation caused by human activity. Atom The smallest portion of an element that can combine chemically with other atoms. Atomic mass The mass of an isotope of an element expressed in atomic mass units, which are defined as one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of carbon-12. Atomic number The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Symbol Z. Auger Electron An electron, sometimes emitted from an atom instead of an x-ray that would otherwise carry away the excess energy. Auger electrons are usually of no significance as a radiation hazard but can contribute to radiation dose in the decay of some radionuclides while inside cells in the body, as in radiopharmaceuticals. Becquerel See activity. Beta particle An electron emitted by the nucleus of a radionuclide. The electric charge may be positive, in which case the beta particle is called a positron. More detailed information is available on the beta particle web page. Chromosomes Rod-shaped bodies found in the nucleus of cells in the body. They contain the genes, or hereditary constituents. Human beings possess 23 pairs. Cosmic rays High energy ionizing radiations from outer space. Complex composition at the surface of the earth. Cosmogenic radionuclides The cosmic radiation which strikes the earth induces radioactivity in the atmosphere. Most of this radioactivity is very short-lived. Some radionuclides however survive to eventually reach the surface of the earth. Among these are H (tritium), Be (beryllium-7) and C (carbon-14) which has the longest half-life (5730 years). Decay The process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. The decrease in the activity of a radioactive substance. Decay Mode The type of decay a nuclide undergoes. Decay product A nuclide or radionuclide produced by decay. It may be formed directly from a radionuclide or as a result of a series of successive decays through several radionuclides. Diagnostic radiology Term usually applied to the use of x-rays in medicine for identifying disease or injury in patients. Disposal In relation to radioactive waste, dispersal or emplacement in any medium without the intention of retrieval. DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid. The compound that controls the structure and function of cells and is the material of inheritance. Dose General term for quantity of ionizing radiation. See absorbed dose, equivalent dose, effective dose and collective effective dose. Frequently used for effective dose. Effective dose The quantity obtained by multiplying the equivalent dose to various tissues and organs by a weighting factor appropriate to each and summing the products. Unit sievert, symbol Sv. Frequently abbreviated to dose. Electric field strength A measure of the intensity of an electric field. Unit volt per metre, symbol V m-1. Electromagnetic field The region in which electromagnetic radiation from a source exerts an influence on another object with or without there being contact between them. More detailed information is available on the extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields web page. Electromagnetic radiation Radiation that can be considered as a wave of electric and magnetic energy travelling through a vacuum or a material. Examples are gamma rays, x-rays, ultraviolet radiation, light, infrared radiation and radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnetic spectrum All electromagnetic radiations displayed as a continuum in order of increasing frequency or decreasing wavelength. Electromagnetic wave See electromagnetic radiation. Electron An elementary particle with low mass, 1/1836 that of a proton, and unit negative electric charge. Positively charged electrons, called positrons, also exist. See also beta particle. Electron volt Unit of energy employed in radiation physics. Equal to the energy gained by an electron in passing through a potential difference of 1 volt. Symbol eV. 1 eV = 1.6 × 10-19 joule approximately. Element A substance with atoms all of the same atomic number. EMF Electromagnetic field. Not to be confused with the initials for electromotive force. Equivalent dose The quantity obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose by a factor to allow for the different effectiveness of the various ionizing radiations in causing harm to tissue. Unit sievert, symbol Sv. Erythema Reddening of the skin caused by dilation of blood vessels. Excitation A process by which radiation imparts energy to an atom or molecule without causing ionisation. Dissipated as heat in tissue. Fission Nuclear fission. A process in which a nucleus splits into two or more nuclei and energy is released. Frequently refers to the splitting of a nucleus of uranium-235 into two approximately equal parts by a thermal neutron with emission of other neutrons. Free radical A grouping of atoms that normally exists in combination with other atoms but can sometimes exist independently. Generally very reactive in a chemical sense. Frequency The number of complete cycles of an electromagnetic wave in a second. Unit hertz, symbol Hz. 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second. Gamma ray A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy without mass or charge. Emitted by a radionuclide. See x-ray. More detailed information is available on the gamma ray web page. Gray See absorbed dose. Half-life The time taken for the activity of a radionuclide to lose half its value by decay. Symbol t½. Infrared radiation Electromagnetic radiation capable of producing the sensation of heat and found between light and radiofrequency radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum. Has subregions IRA, IRB and IRC. Instability Having the property of being unstable. Ion Electrically charged atom or grouping of atoms. Ionisation The process by which a neutral atom or molecule acquires or loses an electric charge. The production of ions. Ionising radiation Radiation that produces ionisation in matter. Examples are alpha particles, gamma rays, x-rays and neutrons. When these radiations pass through the tissues of the body, they have sufficient energy to damage DNA. More detailed information is available on the ionisating and non-ionising radiation web page. Isotope Nuclides with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons. Not a synonym for nuclide. keV Is equal to 1000 eV. See Electron volt . Laser Device which amplifies light and usually produces an extremely narrow intense beam of a single wavelength. More detailed information is available on the laser web page. Light Electromagnetic radiation capable of producing the sensation of vision and found between ultraviolet and infrared radiations in the electromagnetic spectrum. Mass number The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Symbol A. Metastable Nuclei that stay in an excited, unstable state for longer than about 10-10 seconds which is nevertheless an extremely short period of time. (i.e. 10-10 seconds equal to about 100 billionth of a second). Molecule The smallest portion of a substance that can exist by itself and retain the properties of the substance. Mutation A chemical change in the DNA in the nucleus of a cell. Mutations in sperm or egg cells or their precursors may lead to inherited effects in children. Mutations in body cells may lead to effects in the individual. Neutron An elementary particle with unit atomic mass approximately and no electric charge. Non ionising radiation Radiation that does not produce ionisation in matter. Examples are ultraviolet radiation, light, infrared radiation and radiofrequency radiation. When these radiations pass through the tissues of the body they do not have sufficient energy to damage DNA directly. Nuclear reactor A device in which nuclear fission can be sustained in a self-supporting chain reaction involving neutrons. In thermal reactors, fission is brought about by thermal neutrons. Nucleus The core of an atom, occupying little of the volume, containing most of the mass, and bearing positive electric charge. Nucleus of a cell The controlling centre of the basic unit of tissue. Contains the important material DNA. Nuclide A species of atom characterised by the number of protons and neutrons and, in some cases, by the energy state of the nucleus. Optical radiation Electromagnetic radiation comprising ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiations. Photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Positron See beta particle. Probability The mathematical chance that a given event will occur. Proton An elementary particle with unit atomic mass approximately and unit positive electric charge. Radiation The process of emitting energy as waves or particles. The energy thus radiated. Frequently used for ionizing radiation except when it is necessary to avoid confusion with non-ionizing radiation. Radioactive Possessing the property of radioactivity. Radioactive waste Useless material containing radionuclides. Frequently categorised in the nuclear power industry according to activity (and other criteria) as low level, intermediate level and high level waste. Radioactivity The property of radionuclides of spontaneously emitting ionizing radiation. More detailed information is available on the radioactivity web page. Radiofrequency radiation Electromagnetic radiation used for telecommunications and found in the electromagnetic spectrum at longer wavelengths than infrared radiation. More detailed information is available on the radiofrequency radiation web page. RF See radiofrequency radiation. Radiological protection The science and practice of limiting the harm to human beings from radiation. Radionuclide An unstable nuclide that emits ionizing radiation. Radiotherapy Term applied to the use of radiation beams for treating disease, usually cancers, in patients. Risk The probability of injury, harm or damage. Risk factor The probability of cancer and leukaemia or hereditary damage per unit equivalent dose. Usually refers to fatal malignant diseases and serious hereditary damage. Unit Sv-1. Sievert See effective dose. Specific energy absorption rate The rate at which energy is absorbed by unit mass of tissue in an electromagnetic field. Unit watt per kilogram, symbol W kg-1. SAR See specific energy absorption rate. Stable An isotope or nuclide is considered stable if it has a half-life longer than the age of the universe i.e. a half-life longer than about 13.7 billion years. Thermal neutrons Neutrons that have been slowed to the degree that they have the same average thermal energy as the atoms or molecules through which they are passing. The average energy of neutrons at ordinary temperatures is about 0.025 eV, corresponding to an average velocity of 2.2 × 103 m s-1. Ultraviolet radiation Electromagnetic radiation found between x-rays and light in the electromagnetic spectrum. Has subregions UVA, UVB, UVC. More detailed information is available on the ultraviolet radiation web page. UV radiation See ultraviolet radiation. Unstable An isotope or nuclide is considered to be unstable if it has a half-life less than the age of the universe i.e. a half-life less than about 13.7 billion years. Visible radiation See light. Waste management The control of radioactive waste from creation to disposal. Wavelength The distance between successive crests of an electromagnetic wave passing through a given material. Unit metre, symbol m. X-ray A discrete quantity of electromagnetic energy without mass or charge. Emitted by an x-ray machine. See <a href="http://www.arpansa.gov.au/radiationprotection/basics/glossary.cfm#g1" target="_blank">gamma ray. More detailed information is available on the X ray web page.
  12. Dear UAI Forum participants, While we pray for our Japanese URANTIAn family, I see it is time for our planet to be mobilizing our best brains, resources, talent, and skill in aggressive application to the emerging problem of disbursal of (ionizing) radionuclides from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Here is a quote from The URANTIA Book to start off with and web based info for our mutual education. Please speak up if you find error, inconsistency or outright falseness. Thanks --EllenRG 1st from The URANTIA Book http://www.urantia.org/en/urantia-book-sta...mind-and-matter 3. Classification of Matter (471.8) 42:3.1 Matter in all universes, excepting in the central universe, is identical. Matter in its physical properties depends on the revolutionary rates of its component members, the number and size of the revolving members, their distance from the nuclear body or the space content of matter, as well as on the presence of certain forces as yet undiscovered on Urantia. (471.9) 42:3.2 In the varied suns, planets, and space bodies there are ten grand divisions of matter: (472.1) 42:3.3 1. Ultimatonic matter — the prime physical units of material existence, the energy particles which go to make up electrons. (472.2) 42:3.4 2. Subelectronic matter — the explosive and repellent stage of the solar supergases. (472.3) 42:3.5 3. Electronic matter — the electrical stage of material differentiation — electrons, protons, and various other units entering into the varied constitution of the electronic groups. (472.4) 42:3.6 4. Subatomic matter — matter existing extensively in the interior of the hot suns. (472.5) 42:3.7 5. Shattered atoms — found in the cooling suns and throughout space. (472.6) 42:3.8 6. Ionized matter — individual atoms stripped of their outer (chemically active) electrons by electrical, thermal, or X-ray activities and by solvents. (472.7) 42:3.9 7. Atomic matter — the chemical stage of elemental organization, the component units of molecular or visible matter. (472.8) 42:3.10 8. The molecular stage of matter — matter as it exists on Urantia in a state of relatively stable materialization under ordinary conditions. (472.9) 42:3.11 9. Radioactive matter — the disorganizing tendency and activity of the heavier elements under conditions of moderate heat and diminished gravity pressure. (472.10) 42:3.12 10. Collapsed matter — the relatively stationary matter found in the interior of the cold or dead suns. This form of matter is not really stationary; there is still some ultimatonic even electronic activity, but these units are in very close proximity, and their rates of revolution are greatly diminished. (472.11) 42:3.13 The foregoing classification of matter pertains to its organization rather than to the forms of its appearance to created beings. Neither does it take into account the pre-emergent stages of energy nor the eternal materializations on Paradise and in the central universe. 2nd from the New York Times:http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/japan/index.htmlCrisis Timeline March 31 A long-lasting radioactive element, cesium 137, has been measured at levels that pose a long-term danger at one spot 25 miles from the crippled Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, raising questions about whether Japan's evacuation zone should be expanded and whether the land might need to be abandoned. Emails, blog posts and interviews give a glimpse into the struggle carried on by the largely anonymous workers trying to prevent the world's second-worst nuclear calamity from becoming even more dire, painting a picture of mixed panic, heroism and frustration. 3rd .......THE INFO BELOW IS FROM AUSTRALIA WHERE THEY SPELL ionizing WITH AN S AS ionising . Anyone explain that?? --EllenRG http://www.arpansa.gov.au/radiationprotect...asics/index.cfm Introduction to Radiation Basics The following topics provide an informative foundation for your understanding of radiation protection and nuclear safety. The following topics provide an informative foundation for your understanding of radiation protection and nuclear safety. Within the topics there are many links to other parts of the ARPANSA website, websites hosted by others and a glossary of terms. What is radiation?Understanding Radiation Atomic structure Radioactivity Ionising and Non-Ionising radiation Units for measuring radiation [*]ionising radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays X-rays Other types of radioactive decay Health effects of ionising radiation [*]Non ionising radiation Ultraviolet radiation Lasers Radiofrequency radiation Extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields [*]Regulation Australia's regulatory framework ARPANSA's advisory framework Developing radiation protection standards and codes of practice Uniformity in control of radiation sources and nuclear facilities [*]Managing radioactive materials and waste [*]Radiological emergency response [*]Major projects by ARPANSA Comprehensive test ban treaty Maralinga site clean-up [*]Glossary of terms 4th Ionising Radiation and Health Like all other living organisms, you are exposed to ionising radiation every day. This exposure comes from background radiation. This Page: What is Ionising Radiation? What are the Properties of Ionising Radiation? What Units Are Used to Measure Radioactivity? How Does Radiation Interact with Matter? What Units are Used to Measure Absorbed Dose? How Does Radiation Interact with the Human Body? The Natural Background Exposure Limits Monitoring Of Radiation Exposure Introduction Like all other living organisms, you are exposed to ionising radiation every day. This exposure comes from background radiation. You can have additional exposure from other sources; for example having an X-ray or flying in a commercial aeroplane results in additional exposure to ionising radiation. It is best to limit your exposure because there is a possibility of adverse health effects. The first publication in ARPANSA's Radiation Protection Series provides recommended ionising radiation dose limits for the public and for people exposed to ionising radiation as a result of their occupations1. Read on for more detail. What is Ionising Radiation? All matter is made up of atoms consisting of a nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons, similar to the sun surrounded by the planets. The nucleus consists of neutrons and positively charged protons. Atoms containing the same number of protons have identical chemical properties and are known as elements. Elements with a different number of neutrons are known as isotopes. There are 88 naturally occurring elements some examples of which are oxygen, iron, sulphur, uranium and radon gas etc. Some atoms are radioactive (they are called radionuclides) and the nucleus of such atoms can change structure (lose energy); in so doing the energy is emitted as radiation in three main forms: alpha particles (helium nuclei), beta particles (electrons) and gamma rays. This process is termed radioactive decay and the resulting daughter product, a new element, is formed as a result. These radiations can interact with surrounding matter to produce positively and negatively charged particles (a type of electricity). This process is called ionisation, hence the term ionising radiation. X-rays are also known as ionising radiation and they are identical to gamma rays except they are emitted by the passage of electrons through the electric field of a nucleus, not by the nucleus itself. What are the Properties of Ionising Radiation? Beta particles are sub-atomic particles that can travel at close to the speed of light (300,000,000 metres per second). Alpha particles travel relatively slowly and can be stopped (energy absorbed) by a piece of paper, while beta particles can be stopped by one or two centimetres of human tissue. Gamma rays and X-rays are waves of energy similar to visible light, the stuff that comes out of the domestic lamp; except they have more energy and are invisible. They travel at the speed of light and penetrate matter more easily than the particulate radiations. High atomic number metals such as lead are normally required to absorb their energy. What Units are Used to Measure Radioactivity? Radiation is measured in decays (disintegrations) per second which corresponds to the number of nuclei losing energy each second. One becquerel (abbreviation Bq) is equal to one decay per second: one megabequerel is equal to one million disintegrations per second. The human body is naturally radioactive due to the presence of radioactive potassium: A 70 kilogram person would contain about 3500 Bq. How Does Radiation Interact with Matter? When the energy from radiation is absorbed by matter, chemical changes occur at the atomic level. If the exposure is large enough these changes can be readily observed. For example, if glass is heavily irradiated it changes colour. Some precious stones are coloured for commercial purposes using this method. When the body is subjected to a medical X-ray the bones absorb most of the energy and a photographic film can then give an image of the skeleton. The amount of radiation absorbed per gram of matter is called the absorbed dose. What Units Are Used To Measure Absorbed Dose? Absorbed dose is measured in grays (abbreviation Gy). One gray corresponds to one joule of radiation energy deposited in one kilogram of matter. (Note: It would require 320,000 joules of energy to boil one kilogram [one litre] of water). A uniform dose of 3 to 5 Gy to the whole body will kill fifty percent of people exposed in one to two months. This is a large unit and the milligray (mGy), which is one thousandth of a gray, is more commonly used. When radiation interacts with living tissue the effect it has varies with the type of radiation. Alpha rays are 20 times more effective than beta, gamma or X-rays at causing tissue damage. To allow for this, the dose in grays is multiplied by an effectiveness factor and the new units are called sieverts (abbreviation Sv) and the dose is called the equivalent dose. A one milligray dose of alpha rays is equal to 20 mSv (millisieverts) of equivalent dose. A one milligray dose of beta rays is equal to 1 mSv equivalent dose because the effectiveness factor is 1 for beta rays. In most cases the effectiveness factor is unity and the dose in grays is equal to the dose in sieverts. How Does Radiation Interact with the Human Body? When radiation is absorbed in the body it causes chemical reactions to occur which can alter the normal functions of the body. At high doses (above 1 sievert) this can result in massive cell death, organ damage and possibly death to the individual. At low doses (less than 50 mSv) the situation is more complex. The body is made up of different cells. For example we have brain cells, muscle cells, blood cells etc. It is the genes within a cell that determine how a cell functions. If damage occurs to the genes then it is possible for a cancer to occur. This means the cell has lost the ability to control the rate at which it reproduces. Radiation can cause this effect and at low doses it is the only known deleterious health effect. This type of event is very unlikely to occur, and an estimate of its frequency can only be obtained by measuring the effect at higher doses and calculating the probability at low doses. A dose of one millisievert corresponds to a chance of 6 in 100,000 of contracting a cancer. This figure can be compared with the normal incidence of cancer which is 25,000 cases per 100,000 over a lifetime2. If the damage occurs in the testes or ovaries then hereditary effects in descendents may become apparent. No first generation hereditary effects were observed amongst Hiroshima survivors. Based on other studies the ICRP recommended a risk factor of 2 per thousand per sievert effective dose. A dose of one millisievert to a large population will produce two cases of severe hereditary effects per million births3. This figure can be compared with the normal incidence of severe congenital abnormalities which is 23,000 per million births4. (See UNSCEAR 2000 report for more detail). The Natural Background The effect of radiation on health must be discussed within the context of the natural background. Background radiation consists of cosmic rays from space and radiation present in the earth from when it was formed. Cosmic radiation increases with altitude and so airline pilots receive a high exposure from this source; the dose rate at 12,000 metres being about 150 times the sea level dose. The terrestrial radiation comes from naturally occurring radiosiotopes of potassium and rubidium and from decay products of uranium and thorium. On average two thirds of the dose people receive comes from terrestrial sources. Much of this dose can come from the gas, radon, which is a decay product of uranium and thorium. Radon emanates from the soil and tends to concentrate in buildings. Overseas radon contributes a high proportion of background dose. However in Australia studies have shown that radon contributes a smaller proportion to background dose. Exposure Limits The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has set the following limits on exposure to ionising radiation1: The general public shall not be exposed to more than 1 mSv per annum (over and above natural background). Occupational exposure shall not exceed 20 mSv per annum. These limits exclude exposure due to background and medical radiation. Monitoring of Radiation Exposure People who are occupationally exposed to ionising radiation can be monitored with a dosemeter which is worn as a badge attached to clothing. At monthly intervals the dosemeter is sent to a laboratory where the radiation exposure can be read. In Australia the average radiation worker receives a dose of 0.12 mSv per annum. Tables Man's Exposure To Ionising Radiation Source Of Exposure Exposure Natural Radiation (terrestrial and airborne) 1.2 mSv per year Natural Radiation (cosmic radiation at sea level) 0.3 mSv per year Total Natural Radiation 1.5 mSv per year Seven hour aeroplane flight 0.05 mSv Chest X-ray 0.04 mSv Nuclear Fallout (from atmospheric tests in 50's & 60's) 0.02 mSv per Year Chernobyl (people living in Control Zones near Chernobyl) 10 mSv per year Cosmic Radiation Exposure of Domestic Airline Pilot 2 mSv per year Health Risks Arising From Low Doses of Ionising Radiation Effect Risk Normal Incidence Risk of cancer from 1 mSv of radiation 1 in 17,000* 57 in 17,000** Risk of severe hereditary effect from 1 mSv of radiation 1 in 77,000 1,770 in 77,000 * Age standardised lifetime probability for whole population. **Age standardised incidence rate for whole population (not necessarily fatal). The risk of obtaining cancer from 1 mSv of radiation exposure is equivalent to the risk of getting cancer from smoking approximately 100 cigarettes5. References Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 60. Annals of the ICRP 21, p22 (ICRP 1990). P. Jelfs et al, Cancer in Australia 1983 - 85, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare Cancer Series 1, p101 (Australian Government Printing Service, 1992). Radiation: Doses, Effects, Risks. United Nations Environment Programme (Nairobe, 1985). A. Czeizel et al, in Multiple Congenital Abnormalities, p27 (Akademia Kiado, Budapest, 1988). Cohen, B.L. Catalog of risks extended and updated, Health Physics 61/3:317-333 (1991). Adobe Acrobat Reader is needed to view PDF files The free Adobe Acrobat Reader is available from <a href="http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html" title="Adobe website" target="_blank">Adobe's website -- ..."The spiritual insight and moral steadfastness which enabled Van to maintain such an unshakable attitude of loyalty ... was the product of clear thinking, wise reasoning, logical judgment, sincere motivation, unselfish purpose, intelligent loyalty, experiential memory, disciplined character, and the unquestioning dedication of his personality to the doing of the will of the Father in Paradise." (756.7) 67:3.6 URANTIA.org .."..fruits of the divine spirit which are yielded in the lives of spirit-born and God-knowing mortals are: loving service, unselfish devotion, courageous loyalty, sincere fairness, enlightened honesty, undying hope, confiding trust, merciful ministry, unfailing goodness, forgiving tolerance, and enduring peace.." (2054.3) 193:2.2 URANTIA.org
  13. Hi Jean, i like your focus..(like this, that you put in your intro): " " Every single person is different. Thank God. Together we "talk URAntia" ANY way, i think.. :-]) &'m intrigued by similarity between "URANTIA" ...and.... "uranium". Perhaps origin/history/destiny relates?? --Ell
  14. Hi Nigel, all, After reading through some of your conversation I put "soul" in "Search" at the "Read the URANTIA Book". http://www.urantia.org/en/search/node/soul%20type%3Abook Here is one little line out of hundreds found at: http://www.urantia.org/en/urantia-book-sta...h-jump-result-0 : (1226.3) 112:0.15 13. Personality may survive mortal death with identity in the surviving soul. The Adjuster and the personality are changeless; the relationship between them (in the soul) is nothing but change, continuing evolution; and if this change (growth) ceased, the soul would cease.Hmmmm and after some thought here are a couple of lines from the Foreword found at http://www.urantia.org/en/urantia-book-sta...h-jump-result-0 (8.10) 0:5.10 4. Soul. The soul of man is an experiential acquirement. As a mortal creature chooses to "do the will of the Father in heaven," so the indwelling spirit becomes the father of a new reality in human experience. The mortal and material mind is the mother of this same emerging reality. The substance of this new reality is neither material nor spiritual — it is morontial. This is the emerging and immortal soul which is destined to survive mortal death and begin the Paradise ascension. (9.1) 0:5.11 Personality. The personality of mortal man is neither body, mind, nor spirit; neither is it the soul. Personality is the one changeless reality in an otherwise ever-changing creature experience; and it unifies all other associated factors of individuality. The personality is the unique bestowal which the Universal Father makes upon the living and associated energies of matter, mind, and spirit, and which survives with the survival of the morontial soul. I've always liked that "factoid" I found early in my URANTIA study of the Foreword: "Personality is the one changeless reality in an otherwise ever-changing creature experience; and it unifies all other associated factors of individuality." Isn't it reassuring to know that you and I and you and you and you ... are always the same person, and with God's good grace will grow to be better persons forever. --Ell
  15. THANKS TO ALL FOR HELPING with THIS. Camp Brotherhood was wonderful... see what founder 91 year old Father Treacy invited us to participate in, along with over 50,000 others including the Mayor and city Council of Seattle, at: Charter for Compassion. Help spread the Charter more broadly by sharing it with your community: http://charterforcompassion.org/share Engage in compassionate action: http://charterforcompassion.org/act --EllenRG
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