This is an addition to my previous mail at the url:
and to other particle physics in the thread:
Solar constant' is an oxymoron, About our Sun
When I have studied particle physics in the 1930:ies it has become obvious, that all particle physicists around the world had a close collaboration, and they read all scientific papers that other scientists published. Today this isn't possible any more because of the very large amounts of papers published.
The particle physics in the Urantia papers is very clearly referring to the knowledge in the beginning of the 1930:ies, but it is also much different! I can see clear signs that the UB additions to the knowledge of the 1930:ies is becoming true.
We cant be sure about the specific sources used by The Urantia Book writers. Such sources need not to be published papers or books. Science and research is a continuous process, and it is often very difficult to determine, who come up with a principle, idea or measurement for the first time. For the records, I have included here some of the relevant papers.
My experience is, that there quite often appears references in the U-book that wasn't previously published in the scientific journals, before 1935. Anyway, publication is often a long process, and the ideas might have been around a longer time, before they are published as science.
In this mail I have collected the earliest appearance of:
- the expression mesotron
- a particle of mass 180 times that of the electron (this particle appears in physics even today!)
- Neddermeyer, Anderson and Yukawa, and others
- measurements of cosmic rays
- the ultimaton (neutrino) concept
- some modern references about these matters
Probably I copied the following quote (Glasstone 1940) from an old UB mail, many years ago:
Glasstone 1940 quotes S.H. Neddermeyer and C.D Anderson, 1937: experimental data 1937; average observed mass of "mesotrons" (150 + 220)/2 or about 185 times.
the year 1932:
While watching the tracks of cosmic ray particles passing through his cloud chamber, Carl Anderson discovered antimatter in the form of the antielectron, later called the positron. A positron is a particle exactly like an electron, but with an opposite, positive charge.
A debate raged over the nature of cosmic rays. According to a theory of Robert Millikan, they were gamma rays from space -- hence the name "cosmic rays." But evidence was mounting that cosmic rays were, in fact, mostly energetic particles. (The New York Times 1932)
"Cloud tracks of cosmic-ray particles were first observed by Skobelzyn in 1929. ..."
Anderson and Neddermeyer, Int. Conf. on Phys., London, 1934:
After reading Professor Bohr's address at the British Association last September in which he tentatively suggested the name "yucon" for the newly discovered particle, I wrote to him incidentally mentioning the fact than Anderson and Neddermeyer had suggested the name "mesotron" (intermediate particle) as the most appropriate name.
Mesotron, dynatron, penetron, barytron, heavy electron, yukon, U-particle and x-particle:
Letters to Editor
Nature 142, 878-878 (12 November 1938)
Mesotron (Intermediate Particle) as a Name for the New Particles of Intermediate Mass
CARL D. ANDERSON & SETH H. NEDDERMEYER
Abstract: THE existence of particles intermediate in mass between protons and electrons has been shown in experiments on the cosmic radiation 1. Since at present so little is known concerning the properties of these particles, for example, the exact value of the mass, the laws governing their production, their stability against disintegration, etc., it may yet be too early to assign to them a name. But inasmuch as several names have already been suggested, namely, dynatron, penetron, barytron, heavy electron, yukon and x-particle, it may be wise to consider the matter at this time.
1.For historical summary see Wentzel, G., Naturwiss., 26, 273 (1938); and Bowen, Millikan and Neher, footnote, Phys. Rev., 53, 219 (1938).
"The name 'mesotron' has been suggested by Anderson and Neddermeyer for the new particle found in cosmic radiation with a mass intermediate between that of the electron and the proton:
Homi Jehangir Bhabha is mostly known as the chief architect of India's nuclear programme. However, his contribution to India's development goes far beyond the sphere of atomic energy. He had established two great research institutions namely the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Atomic Energy Establishment at Trombay (which after Bhabha's death was renamed as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). He played a crucial role in the development of electronics in India. Bhabha was an outstanding scientist and a brilliant engineer. He derived a correct expression for the probability of scattering positrons by electrons, a process now known as Bhabha scattering. His classic paper, jointly with W. Heitler, published in 1937 described how primary cosmic rays from space interact with the upper atmosphere to produce particles observed at the ground level. Bhabha and Heitler explained the cosmic ray shower formation by the cascade production of gamma rays and positive and negative electron pairs.
It was Bhabha who suggested the name 'meson' now used for a class of elementary particles. When Carl David Anderson (1905-91) discovered a new particle in the cosmic radiation with a mass between that of electron and the proton he named it 'mesoton' which was subsequently changed by him to mesotron presumably at the advice of Millikan. Bhabha in a short note to Nature (February 1939) proposed the name 'meson'. In this note he wrote: "The name 'mesotron' has been suggested by Anderson and Neddermeyer for the new particle found in cosmic radiation with a mass intermediate between that of the electron and the proton. It is felt that the 'tr' in this word is redundant, since it does not belong to the Greek root 'meso' for middle; the 'tr' in neutron and electron belong, of course, to the roots "neutr" and "electra".... It would therefore be more logical and also shorter to call the new particle a meson instead of a mesotron." Anderson's particle (mu-meson) was first thought to be the particle predicted by Hideki Yukawa (1907-81) that was thought to carry the strong nuclear force and hold the nucleus together. However, later when it was found that its interaction with nucleons was so infrequent it became doubtful whether it could perform the role described by Yukawa, that is to act as nuclear 'glue'. This was finally resolved when in 1947 C.F. Powell discovered a particle again in cosmic radiation with a mass of 264 times that of the electron (pi-meson or pion). Pion interacted very strongly with nucleons and thus filled precisely Yukawa's predicted role. Mu-meson or muon is the decay product of pi-meson.
On the Mass of the Mesotron:
Nishina Memorial Foundation 2008
The Editror , 585
On the Mass of the Mesotron
Since we published the results of the mass determination of the mesotron, the existence of which had theoretically been foreseen by Yukawa, we have been continuing the same experiments with the Wilson cloud chamber.
According to the range-energy curve for the proton given by Livingston and Bethe we calculate the mass of the particle by using the above values of IIp and range and obtain
M = (170 +/- 9) *m , ........................ (1)
where m is the mass of the electron.
At the end of the range the photograph shows no sign of an electronic track, which would prove the disintegration of the mesotron.
(also calculated in this paper):
M = (180 +/- 20) * m, .........................(4)
by: Y. Nishina, M. Takeuchi, and T. Ichimiya
Cosmic-Ray Sub-Committee of Japan Society for the Promotion of Scientific Research.
Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN)
January 31, 1939
Yukawa Hall Archival Library (1934):
The paper publisher one year later (1935), was slightly modified:
Interaction of Elementary Particles, H. Yukawa (1935):
Recent particle physics:
INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR PHYSICS CONFERENCE
HIDEKI YUKAWA AND NUCLEAR PHYSICS
Tokyo, Japan, June 3-8, 2007
Thanks to Yukawa, the search for cosmic-ray particles with masses in-between (this is the origin of ‘mesotron’, now meson) the light electron, me, and the heavy nucleon, mN, (proton or neutron), became a very hot topic, during the first third of the XXth Century. This intermediate mass value was deduced by Yukawa from the range of the nuclear forces.
“In this paper the authors improved the mass measurement of their previous particle (with positive charge) and concluded that the result obtained, m = (180 ± 20) me, was in good agreement with the value of the  negative particle. The masses of the negative and positive particles had not to be different. The meson theory of the strong nuclear forces proposed by Hideki Yukawa…”
CONCLUSIONS ON THE GOLD MINE OPENED BY HIDEKI YUKAWA:
How to study the new world: QGCW With the advent of the LHC supercollider, we propose the development and the realization of a new technology able to implement the collision between different particle states (p, n, pi, K, my, e, gamma, ny) and the QGCW in order to study the properties of the Quark-Gluon-Coloured-World (QGCW) [42, 43].
 Interaction of Elementary Particles H. Yukawa, Part I, Proc.
Physico-Math. Soc. Japan 17, 48 (1935);
Models and Methods in the Meson Theory H. Yukawa, Reviews of Modern Physics
21, 474 (1949).
 Note on the Nature of Cosmic Ray Particles S.H. Neddermeyer and C.D.
Anderson, Phys. Rev. 51, 884 (1937).
 New Evidence for the Existence of a Particle of Mass Intermediate
Between the Proton and Electron
J.C. Street and E.C. Stevenson, Phys. Rev. (L) 52 1003 (1937).
 Complexity Exists at the Fundamental Level
A. Zichichi, in Proceedings of the 2004–Erice Subnuclear Physics School.
‘How and Where to go Beyond the Standard Model’, The Subnuclear Series
Vol. 42, page 251, World Scientific (2007).
But the cosmic ray particle of mass 180 times that of the electron, was neither a myon nor a pion, as many sources even today declare.
A detailed analysis  shows that the experimentally observable quantities, which characterize the existence of ‘Complexity’ in a given field, do exist in physics; the Yukawa gold mine is a proof of it. This means that ‘Complexity’ exists at the fundamental level, therefore, totally unexpected effects should show up in physics:
-Effects, which are impossible to be predicted on the basis of present knowledge.
The eta', thanks to its strong gluonic component, is the Yukawa particle in the QCD Era.
The complexity introduced by the U-book, about an electron built up as a condensate of 100 ultimatons,
is a very important addition to the erroneous theories about neutrinos!
Edited by HSTa, 27 February 2011 - 08:30 AM.