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The Surface Of The Sun and Calcium


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#1 HSTa

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Posted 25 January 2009 - 10:21 AM

The Surface Of The Sun and Calcium

HSTa wrote on Jan 23 2009, 09:39 PM:


The recently found Solar layer is very interesting. Perhaps I will open another thread to discuss recent findings in more detail:

UB p.462:. “… This explains why there is a calcium layer, a gaseous stone
surface, on the sun six thousand miles thick; and this despite the fact that
nineteen lighter elements, and numerous heavier ones, are underneath.”


UB: “The stone atom is one of the
most prevalent and persistent of the elements. It not only endures solar
ionization-- splitting--but persists in an associative identity even after it
has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar
temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all
of the more common forms of matter.”

However, the UB states that the calcium atom loses its outer electron, i.e. it is singly ionized:

UB: “Calcium is an active and versatile element at solar temperatures. The
stone atom has two agile and loosely attached electrons in the two outer
electronic circuits, which are very close together. Early in the atomic
struggle it loses its outer electron; whereupon it engages in a masterful act
of juggling the nineteenth electron back and forth between the nineteenth and
twentieth circuits of electronic revolution. “

Ca I Ground State 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 1S0
Ionization energy 49305.95 cm-1 (6.11316 eV) Ref. SC85

Ca II Ground State 1s22s22p63s23p64s 2S1/2
Ionization energy 95751.87 cm-1 (11.87172 eV) Ref. SC85

Te “Ca II” is the calcium ion best known by the astronomers! This calcium ion also produces the well known K and H lines of our sun. Edwin Hubble used these lines for spectral redshift measurements of galaxies.

(wikipedia): H and K lines
In the visible portion of the spectrum of many stars, including the Sun, strong absorption lines of singly-ionized calcium are shown. Prominent among these are the H-line at 3968.5 Å and the K line at 3933.7 Å of singly-ionized calcium, or Ca II. For the Sun and stars with low temperatures, the prominence of the H and K lines can be an indication of strong magnetic activity in the chromosphere. Measurement of periodic variations of these active regions can also be used to deduce the rotation periods of these stars.[4]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calcium

=

“The pictures produced by Lockheed Martin's Trace Satellite and YOHKOH, TRACE and SOHO satellite programs are publicly available in the web. SERTS program for the spectral analysis suggest a new picture challenging the simple gas sphere picture. The visual inspectation of the pictures combined with spectral analysis has led Michael Moshina to suggests that Sun has a solid, conductive spherical surface layer consisting of calcium ferrite.

In the gas sphere model these elements are expected to be present only in minor amounts. As many as 57 different types of emissions from 10 different kinds of elements had to be considered to construct a picture about the surface of the Sun.

Moshina has visually analyzed the pictures constructed from the surface of Sun using light at wave lengths corresponding to three lines of ferrite ions (171, 195, 284 Angstroms). ”

http://www.thesurfaceofthesun.com/

Artificial satellites investigating our Sun have discovered opaque “rocky” gaseous layers of calcium-ferrite, close to the solar photosphere, in amazing agreement with the UB predictions. More about the solar surface layers later.

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#2 HSTa

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Posted 26 January 2009 - 08:12 AM

So, what do we mean by a “layer”? Another layer mentioned correctly in the UB is the ozone layer of the Earth atmosphere. There is only little ozone in this layer and many other molecules. But the atmospheric concentration of ozone is highest in this “layer”.

We have to interpret the calcium layer in an analogous manner; calcium is not the only atom or ion in the solar layer mentioned by the UB.

Michael Mozina:
“Just as we can see the transition layer of the surface in satellite imagery, heliosiesmology allows us to hear this same transition layer and even measure the thickness of the transitional layer. In this case they find a double sided, stratified layer that is centered at around .99R and begins at about .995R, or just under the surface of the photosphere. Heliosiesmology allows us to hear and verify what we can see in satellite images.”

The solar diameter at the photosphere is about 1.4 million km/ 865,000 mi. Hence the solar radius is
R = 432500 mi.

We might then make a coarse estimate of the thickness of the layers that probably contain calcium:
The depth of this layer has to be something between 0.01*R to 0.02*R, or roughly from 4.32 to 8.65 thousand miles.
(I corrected missing decimal points!)

The UB estimate of the thickness of the layer containing calcium was “six thousand miles”!

Therefore we have to conclude that the estimate by Mozina is in fair agreement with the UB. I have seen no other recent estimates of this layer.

We don’t have to agree with every conclusion by Mozina, but many of them are very interesting and support some previously unconfirmed statements in the Urantia Book.

http://www.thesurfac...aceOfTheSun.pdf

Edited by HSTa, 26 January 2009 - 10:34 AM.


#3 joer

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Posted 28 January 2009 - 01:01 AM

So, what do we mean by a “layer”? Another layer mentioned correctly in the UB is the ozone layer of the Earth atmosphere. There is only little ozone in this layer and many other molecules. But the atmospheric concentration of ozone is highest in this “layer”.

We have to interpret the calcium layer in an analogous manner; calcium is not the only atom or ion in the solar layer mentioned by the UB.

Michael Mozina:
“Just as we can see the transition layer of the surface in satellite imagery, heliosiesmology allows us to hear this same transition layer and even measure the thickness of the transitional layer. In this case they find a double sided, stratified layer that is centered at around .99R and begins at about .995R, or just under the surface of the photosphere. Heliosiesmology allows us to hear and verify what we can see in satellite images.”

The solar diameter at the photosphere is about 1.4 million km/ 865,000 mi. Hence the solar radius is
R = 432500 mi.

We might then make a coarse estimate of the thickness of the layers that probably contain calcium:
The depth of this layer has to be something between 0.01*R to 0.02*R, or roughly from 4.32 to 8.65 thousand miles.
(I corrected missing decimal points!)

The UB estimate of the thickness of the layer containing calcium was “six thousand miles”!

Therefore we have to conclude that the estimate by Mozina is in fair agreement with the UB. I have seen no other recent estimates of this layer.

We don’t have to agree with every conclusion by Mozina, but many of them are very interesting and support some previously unconfirmed statements in the Urantia Book.

http://www.thesurfac...aceOfTheSun.pdf


Very interesting stuff HSTa. Thank You.
The more we discover how much we are Loved by God, the more we want to do God's Will.

#4 HSTa

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Posted 04 October 2010 - 04:38 AM

(about the stone atom)

Because this forum already has a thread about Solar calcium, I will add some material here, and not to the thread which also conations some material about solar calcium and a lot about our Sun:

Solar constant' is an oxymoron, About our Sun

http://www.urantia-u...h...t=0&start=0


In the UBook description about Calcium 6. Calcium — The Wanderer of Space there are lots of interesting statements that would need a better analysis.

One that this time interested me was the statement concerning the expressions:
The stone atom and solar ionization — splitting in this UB statement:

UB (461.6) 41:6.2 Calcium is, in fact, the chief element of the matter-permeation of space throughout Orvonton. Our whole superuniverse is sprinkled with minutely pulverized stone. Stone is literally the basic building matter for the planets and spheres of space. The cosmic cloud, the great space blanket, consists for the most part of the modified atoms of calcium. The stone atom is one of the most prevalent and persistent of the elements. It not only endures solar ionization — splitting — but persists in an associative identity even after it has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all of the more common forms of matter.

What we mean by ionization of the calcium atom is correctly described here:

UB (462.2) 41:6.4 Calcium is an active and versatile element at solar temperatures. The stone atom has two agile and loosely attached electrons in the two outer electronic circuits, which are very close together. Early in the atomic struggle it loses its outer electron; whereupon it engages in a masterful act of juggling the nineteenth electron back and forth between the nineteenth and twentieth circuits of electronic revolution.

it loses its outer electron; whereby is formed the calcium ion known by the name Ca II. This ion is responsible for the two strong spectral lines (K and H) in the blue end of the visible solar spectrum, that have been very important in cosmology.

The following UB expressions therefore obviously doesn’t refer to the Calcium atom only:

The stone atom …. It not only endures solar ionization — splitting

but to a very enduring calcium compound found in chalkstone or limestone!

The word splitting therefore refers to a chemical compound, not to the Ca atom!

Recently I found that the expression stone atom has been used by the old Greeks and by George Gamow, theoretical physicist and cosmologist, referring to Greek conceptions of ’stone atoms and fire atoms’:

One, two, three-- infinity: facts and speculations of science, By George Gamow, page 119

Posted Image

Calcite is the stable form of CaCO3 at most temperatures and pressures, as said below.
But the basic building block of calcite is Calcium oxide (CaO), and my conviction now is that the UBook expression ’stone atom’ refers to Calcium oxide: see:


"The carbonate minerals calcite, aragonite, and dolomite have been calculated to make up approximately 15 percent of the Earth's sediments and sedimentary rocks and about 2 percent of the terrestrial crust. A large percentage of the calcite, the most abundant of these carbonate minerals, occurs in limestones, which constitute noteworthy proportions of many sequences of marine sediments. Calcite is also the chief component of marls, travertines, calcite veins, most speleothems (cave deposits), many marbles and carbonatites, and some ore-bearing veins. Calcite is the stable form of CaCO3 at most temperatures and pressures."


http://en.wikipedia....i/Calcium_oxide

‘Quicklime (CaO) is also thought to have been a component of Greek fire. Upon contact with water, quicklime would increase its temperature above 150 °C and ignite the fuel.[6]’

CaO Melting point : 2845 K
CaO Boiling point : 3123 K

Because of the very high temperatures that Calcium_oxide can withstand, this compound is used for making steels.

Edited by HSTa, 04 October 2010 - 05:11 AM.


#5 HSTa

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Posted 04 October 2010 - 10:17 AM

UB (462.2) 41:6.4 …
By tossing this nineteenth electron back and forth between its own orbit and that of its lost companion more than twenty-five thousand times a second, a mutilated stone atom is able partially to defy gravity and thus successfully to ride the emerging streams of light and energy, the sunbeams, to liberty and adventure. This calcium atom moves outward by alternate jerks of forward propulsion, grasping and letting go the sunbeam about twenty-five thousand times each second. And this is why stone is the chief component of the worlds of space. Calcium is the most expert solar-prison escaper.

Today there is no doubt that the Solar wind contains several calcium isotopes and ions! This fact has been denied by some in earlier discussions.

Most of the data have been obtained from the SOHO spacecraft Charge, Element and Isotope Analysis System (CELIAS), but other measurements exist like from the
Genesis spacecraft. Ca and O has also been found in the upper atmosphere of the planet Mercury, and these elements are believed (in some reports) to originate from the solar wind.

Next a table from the source:

Calcium Abundance in the Solar Wind :

http://iopscience.io.../1/489/fulltext

The Astrophysical Journal, 583:489-495, 2003 January 20 © 2003.
The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. Printed in U.S.A.

Posted Image

Ca measured abundances are given for the Solar:
- photosphere
- corona
- flares
- solar wind
- solar energetic particles

Calcium ions are especially abundant in the solar wind during solar flares. A solar flare is a large explosion in the Sun's atmosphere.

During such flares whistler like sounds might also be detected with relatively simple receivers, I have heard.

Edited by HSTa, 04 October 2010 - 12:13 PM.


#6 HSTa

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Posted 19 November 2010 - 12:45 PM

In searching for data about the Local Bubble cavity brought up my Melanie, I found this paper. It describes various types of space clouds that our Sun has moved through in the past. These clouds affect the amount and types of radiation that reach the Earth, and contain Calcium on dust grains in space!

UB (662.9) 57:8.22 With this increase in land elevation the first climatic differences of the planet appeared. Land elevation, cosmic clouds, and oceanic influences are the chief factors in climatic fluctuation.

This paper also describes cold dust clouds mainly depleted with Calcium (Ca) and calcium ions:

In cold clouds ~99.7% of the Ca is depleted onto dust grains. (!)

Compare to the Ubook:

UB (461.6) 41:6.2 Calcium is, in fact, the chief element of the matter-permeation of space throughout Orvonton. Our whole superuniverse is sprinkled with minutely pulverized stone.

Astrophys. Space Sci. Trans., 2, 53–61, 2006
www.astrophys-space-sci-trans.net/2/53/2006/
Published: 8 August 2006

The Sun’s journey through the local interstellar medium: the paleoLISM and paleoheliosphere

P. C. Frisch1 and J. D. Slavin

Optical Ca+ data are also used, however the ratio
N(Ca+)/N(Ho) is highly variable. In cold clouds ~99.7% of
the Ca is depleted onto dust grains.
Both depletion and ionization
affect Ca+ in warm clouds such as the CLIC; for example
Ca++/Ca+ >1 if T >4 000K and n(e)<0.13 cm-3
(e.g. Welty et al., 1996). The ratio N(Ho)/N(Ca+) = 10-8 is
used, based on the three absorption components observed in
both Ca+ and Ho towards…

3 The Sun in the Local Bubble cavity
Prior to crossing paths with the CLIC, the Sun traveled
through the Local Bubble (LB) for several million years
(Frisch and York, 1986).
3.1 Local Bubble
The exact dimensions and structure of the Local Bubble depend
on the ISM component that is sampled; we use the optical
reddening properties of interstellar dust grains here, based
on photometric data in the Hipparcos catalog…

http://www.astrophys...a-2-53-2006.pdf


I wanted to mention this paper, before I forget it.

Edited by HSTa, 19 November 2010 - 12:49 PM.





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