HSTa wrote on Jan 23 2009, 09:39 PM:
The recently found Solar layer is very interesting. Perhaps I will open another thread to discuss recent findings in more detail:
UB p.462:. “… This explains why there is a calcium layer, a gaseous stone
surface, on the sun six thousand miles thick; and this despite the fact that
nineteen lighter elements, and numerous heavier ones, are underneath.”
UB: “The stone atom is one of the
most prevalent and persistent of the elements. It not only endures solar
ionization-- splitting--but persists in an associative identity even after it
has been battered by the destructive X rays and shattered by the high solar
temperatures. Calcium possesses an individuality and a longevity excelling all
of the more common forms of matter.”
However, the UB states that the calcium atom loses its outer electron, i.e. it is singly ionized:
UB: “Calcium is an active and versatile element at solar temperatures. The
stone atom has two agile and loosely attached electrons in the two outer
electronic circuits, which are very close together. Early in the atomic
struggle it loses its outer electron; whereupon it engages in a masterful act
of juggling the nineteenth electron back and forth between the nineteenth and
twentieth circuits of electronic revolution. “
Ca I Ground State 1s22s22p63s23p64s2 1S0
Ionization energy 49305.95 cm-1 (6.11316 eV) Ref. SC85
Ca II Ground State 1s22s22p63s23p64s 2S1/2
Ionization energy 95751.87 cm-1 (11.87172 eV) Ref. SC85
Te “Ca II” is the calcium ion best known by the astronomers! This calcium ion also produces the well known K and H lines of our sun. Edwin Hubble used these lines for spectral redshift measurements of galaxies.
(wikipedia): H and K lines
In the visible portion of the spectrum of many stars, including the Sun, strong absorption lines of singly-ionized calcium are shown. Prominent among these are the H-line at 3968.5 Å and the K line at 3933.7 Å of singly-ionized calcium, or Ca II. For the Sun and stars with low temperatures, the prominence of the H and K lines can be an indication of strong magnetic activity in the chromosphere. Measurement of periodic variations of these active regions can also be used to deduce the rotation periods of these stars.
“The pictures produced by Lockheed Martin's Trace Satellite and YOHKOH, TRACE and SOHO satellite programs are publicly available in the web. SERTS program for the spectral analysis suggest a new picture challenging the simple gas sphere picture. The visual inspectation of the pictures combined with spectral analysis has led Michael Moshina to suggests that Sun has a solid, conductive spherical surface layer consisting of calcium ferrite.
In the gas sphere model these elements are expected to be present only in minor amounts. As many as 57 different types of emissions from 10 different kinds of elements had to be considered to construct a picture about the surface of the Sun.
Moshina has visually analyzed the pictures constructed from the surface of Sun using light at wave lengths corresponding to three lines of ferrite ions (171, 195, 284 Angstroms). ”
Artificial satellites investigating our Sun have discovered opaque “rocky” gaseous layers of calcium-ferrite, close to the solar photosphere, in amazing agreement with the UB predictions. More about the solar surface layers later.