.Greetings Fellow Students, Forum Members and Guests,The teachings of the UB repeatedly indicate that self control and more self control is the trend of progressing civilization. What could have been better devised than taboos to control people?!
...A taboo is a vehement prohibition of an action based on the belief that such behavior is either too sacred or too accursed for ordinary individuals to undertake, under threat of supernatural punishment. Such prohibitions are present in virtually all societies. The word has been somewhat expanded in the social sciences to include strong prohibitions relating to any area of human activity or custom that is sacred or forbidden based on moral judgment and religious beliefs. "Breaking a taboo" is usually considered objectionable by society in general, not merely a subset of a culture.
...The term "taboo" comes from the Tongan tabu, related to the Maori tapu. Its English use dates to 1777 when the British explorer James Cook visited Tonga.
...Sigmund Freud posited that incest and patricide were the only two universal taboos and formed the basis of civilization. However, although cannibalism, in-group murder, and incest are taboo in the majority of societies, modern research has found exceptions for each and no taboo is presently known to be universal.
Common taboos include restrictions or ritual regulation of killing and hunting; sex and sexual relationships (primarily incest, pedophilia, necrophilia, intermarriage, miscegenation, adultery, homosexuality, fornication, and bestiality); reproduction (abortion, infanticide); the deceased and their graves; food and dining (primarily cannibalism and dietary laws such as vegetarianism, kashrut, and halal); and bodily functions (primarily menstrual cycles, but also defecation and urination).
Taboos often extend to cover discussion of taboo topics, resulting in euphemisms and replacement of taboo words.
...Taboos may serve many functions and often remain in effect after their original reason has disappeared.
Communist and materialist theorists have argued that taboos can be used to reveal the histories of societies when other records are lacking. Marvin Harris particularly endeavored to explain taboos as a consequence of ecologic and economic conditions.
Source/more: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taboo***"Unclean" references from the Christian Bible:Leviticus 5:2 "'Or if a person touches anything ceremonially ...
...The rise of rationalism and science has reduced the potency of many former taboos in modern cultures. In the United States and Europe, people openly discuss and explore previously taboo subjects such as sexuality and abortion. Increasing understanding has led medical disorders such as epilepsy, birth defects, and sexually transmitted diseases to be treated more analytically and less judgmentally than in the past.
However, changing social customs and standards also create new taboos, such as bans on slavery; conflation of ephebophilia with pedophilia; prohibitions on alcohol, tobacco, or psychopharmaceutical consumption (particularly among pregnant women); and the employment of politically correct euphemisms to – at times quite unsuccessfully – mitigate various forms of discrimination.
Incest itself has been pulled both ways, with some seeking to normalize consensual adult relationships regardless of the degree of kinship (notably in Europe) and others expanding the degrees of prohibited contact (notably in the United States).
Contemporary multicultural societies have established a number of taboos rooted in the perceived injustice and deleterious effects of modern history, particularly neocolonialism. Tribalisms (for example, ethnocentrism and nationalism) and prejudices (racism, sexism, religious extremism) are opposed at times reflexively despite the potentially high cost of diverse societies in terms of trust and solidarity.
..... Or if a person touches anything ceremonially unclean
--whether the carcasses ... //bible.cc/leviticus/5-2.htm - 17k Romans 14:14 As one who is in the Lord Jesus, I am fully convinced ...
As one who is in the Lord Jesus, I am fully convinced that no food is unclean
in itself. But if anyone regards something as unclean ... //bible.cc/romans/14-14.htm - 17k Numbers 19:22 Anything that an unclean person touches becomes ...
Anything that an unclean
person touches becomes unclean
anyone who touches it becomes unclean
till evening ... //bible.cc/numbers/19-22.htm - 16k Leviticus 11:35 Anything that one of their carcasses falls on ...
Anything that one of their carcasses falls on becomes unclean
; an oven or
cooking pot must be broken up. They are unclean
, and you ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-35.htm - 17k Leviticus 20:25 "'You must therefore make a distinction between ...
"'You must therefore make a distinction between clean and unclean
and clean birds. Do not defile yourselves ... //bible.cc/leviticus/20-25.htm - 18k Leviticus 7:21 If anyone touches something unclean--whether human ...
If anyone touches something unclean
--whether human uncleanness or an unclean
or any unclean
, detestable thing--and then eats any of the meat of the ... //bible.cc/leviticus/7-21.htm - 18k Leviticus 12:2 "Say to the Israelites: 'A woman who becomes ...
"Say to the Israelites: 'A woman who becomes pregnant and gives birth to a son will
be ceremonially unclean
for seven days, just as she is unclean
during her ... //bible.cc/leviticus/12-2.htm - 17k Leviticus 15:10 and whoever touches any of the things that were ...
and whoever touches any of the things that were under him will be unclean
whoever picks up those things must wash his clothes and bathe with water ... //bible.cc/leviticus/15-10.htm - 17k Leviticus 11:31 Of all those that move along the ground, these are ...
Of all those that move along the ground, these are unclean
for you. Whoever
touches them when they are dead will be unclean
till evening. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-31.htm - 16k Leviticus 13:11 it is a chronic skin disease and the priest shall ...
it is a chronic skin disease and the priest shall pronounce him unclean
is not to put him in isolation, because he is already unclean
. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/13-11.htm - 16k Leviticus 15:24 "'If a man lies with her and her monthly flow ...
"'If a man lies with her and her monthly flow touches him, he will be unclean
for seven days; any bed he lies on will be unclean
. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/15-24.htm - 16k Leviticus 11:34 Any food that could be eaten but has water on it ...
Any food that could be eaten but has water on it from such a pot is unclean
and any liquid that could be drunk from it is unclean
. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-34.htm - 16k Leviticus 11:27 Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those ...
Of all the animals that walk on all fours, those that walk on their paws are unclean
for you; whoever touches their carcasses will be unclean
till evening. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-27.htm - 16k Leviticus 11:26 "'Every animal that has a split hoof not ...
"'Every animal that has a split hoof not completely divided or that does not chew
the cud is unclean
for you; whoever touches [the carcass of] any of them will ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-26.htm - 16k Leviticus 15:27 Whoever touches them will be unclean; he must wash ...
Whoever touches them will be unclean
; he must wash his clothes and
bathe with water, and he will be unclean
till evening. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/15-27.htm - 16k Numbers 19:20 But if a person who is unclean does not purify ...
But if a person who is unclean
does not purify himself, he must be cut off from
the community, because he has defiled the sanctuary of the LORD. ... //bible.cc/numbers/19-20.htm - 17k Leviticus 11:28 Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash his ...
Anyone who picks up their carcasses must wash his clothes, and he will be unclean
till evening. They are unclean
for you. ...
These animals are unclean
for you. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-28.htm - 16k Leviticus 13:44 the man is diseased and is unclean. The priest ...
the man is diseased and is unclean
. The priest shall pronounce
because of the sore on his head. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/13-44.htm - 16k Leviticus 11:40 Anyone who eats some of the carcass must wash his ...
Anyone who eats some of the carcass must wash his clothes, and he will
till evening. Anyone who picks up the carcass ... //bible.cc/leviticus/11-40.htm - 17k Leviticus 13:15 When the priest sees the raw flesh, he shall ...
When the priest sees the raw flesh, he shall pronounce him unclean
The raw flesh is unclean
; he has an infectious disease. ... //bible.cc/leviticus/13-15.htm - 16k Source: http://bible.cc/search.php?q=unclean***The seven commandments (nots) of Dalamatia from Page 751, Paper 66:7:
***As you can see, of the "ten commandments" only two are positive, the others are things forbidden. From Exodus 20:1-17:
1. You shall not fear nor serve any God but the Father of all.
2. You shall not disobey the Father's Son, the world's ruler, nor show disrespect to his superhuman associates.
3. You shall not speak a lie when called before the judges of the people.
4. You shall not kill men, women, or children.
5. You shall not steal your neighbor's goods or cattle.
6. You shall not touch your friend's wife.
7. You shall not show disrespect to your parents or to the elders of the tribe.
Source/more: http://www.bible-kno...0-commandments/***About taboo food and drink:
- You shall have no other gods before me.
- You shall not make for yourself any carved image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate me, but showing mercy to thousands, to those who love Me and keep My commandments.
- You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain, for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes His name in vain.
- Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor and do all your work, but the seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord your God. In it you shall do no work: you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your manservant, nor your maidservant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
- Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long upon the land which the Lord your God is giving you.
- You shall not murder.
- You shall not commit adultery.
- You shall not steal.
- You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
- You shall not covet your neighbor’s house; you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his manservant, nor his maidservant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, nor anything that is your neighbor’s.”
Amphibians and reptiles
...Judaism strictly forbids the consumption of amphibians, such as frogs. Consumption of reptiles, such as crocodiles and snakes, is also forbidden. In other cultures, foods such as frog legs and alligator are treasured as delicacies, and the animals are raised commercially.
In Judaism, the Deuteronomic Code and Priestly Code explicitly prohibit the bat. Likewise, Islamic Sharia forbids their consumption.
In the predominantly-Muslim nation of Indonesia, however, bat meat is known to be a prized delicacy, especially within the Batak and Minahasa minority communities, but also in Java.
Bears are not considered kosher animals in Judaism while all predatory terrestrial animals are forbidden in Islam. Observant Jews therefore abstain from eating bear meat.
The Torah (Leviticus 11:13) explicitly states that the eagle, vulture, and osprey are not to be eaten. A bird now commonly raised for meat in some areas, the ostrich, is explicitly banned as food in Leviticus 11:16.
In North America, while pigeons (as doves), sometimes known as squab, are a hunted game bird, urban pigeons are avoided due to the presumption of uncleanness and the parasites which they may carry. Swan was at one time a dish reserved for royalty. The English custom of Swan Upping derives from this period. In more modern times, swans have been protected in parts of Europe and the United States, making swan unavailable. Reports about the eating of swans are seen from time to time.
Scavengers and carrion-eaters such as vultures and crows are avoided as food in many cultures because they are perceived as carriers of disease and unclean, and associated with death. An exception is the rook which was a recognised country dish, and which has in more recent times been served in a Scottish restaurant in London. In Western cultures today, most people regard songbirds as backyard wildlife rather than as food. In addition, some migratory birds are protected internationally by the Agreement on the Conservation of African-Eurasian Migratory Waterbirds.
...The eating of a camel is strictly prohibited by the Torah in Deuteronomy 14:6-7. Although the camel is a cud-chewer, the Torah still considered it "unclean". While the foot of a camel is split into two toe-like structures, this passage explicitly states that the camel does not meet the cloven hoof criterion.
The eating of camel is allowed in Islam, and indeed is traditional in the Islamic heartland in Saudi Arabia and the Arabian Peninsula more generally. The hump in particular is considered a delicacy and eaten on special occasions.
are considered treif
(unfit or unclean
) in Judaism
(forbidden) in Islam
. They are also considered unclean in some Christian denominations
One more about pig meat from the Old Testament:
...Leviticus 11:7-8 "And the swine, though he divide the hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not the cud; he is unclean to you. Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their carcase shall ye not touch; they are unclean to you."
***The Evening Star seems to be stressing the point that even if they were "terribly burdensome", taboos are just another necessary, painful and costly foundation stone of social progress, of primitive religion. Tomorrow's reading is about our ancestor's next step toward an understanding of supernatural values, the very beginnings of belief in gods who command, punish and torment humans. Love was not an attribute of the early gods apparently. Section 2 is titled: THE CONCEPT OF SIN.Thanks for reading. Forum Member's thoughts, reflections, insights, observations, comments, corrections and questions about today's OPAD presentation are invited. Join the ForumMuch love, Rick/OPAD hostOverview of: Paper 89 Sin, Sacrifice, and Atonement
1. The Taboo
2. The Concept of Sin
3. Renunciation and Humiliation
4. Origins of Sacrifice
5. Sacrifices and Cannibalism
6. Evolution of Human Sacrifice
7. Modifications of Human Sacrifice
8. Redemption and Covenants
9. Sacrifices and Sacraments
10. Forgiveness of Sin
Reader Tools, References & Links***
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